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The 2 mark coin was first issued by the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1876 during the reign of Grand Duke Frederick I, and continued to be minted until 1888. A similar issue of Frederick was introduced in 1892 and was produced until 1902, when yet another issue began circulating. The third emission was produced until 1907, when Frederick I died. His son, Frederick II, then became Grand Duke of Baden, and four years later, in 1911, a new general issue coin featuring his image was introduced, and continued to be minted until 1913.
Commemorative Baden 2 mark coins were issued in 1902, 1906, and 1907, commemorating the 50th anniversary of Frederick I's reign, the 50th anniversary of Frederick I's and Duchess Louise's marriage, and the death of Frederick I, respectively.
History[edit | edit source]
Frederick I general issues[edit | edit source]
The first Baden 2 mark coin was issued in 1876, during the reign of Grand Duke Frederick I. It had the standard composition, mass, and measurements as every other 2 gold mark coin of the German Empire issued during the time, being composed of .900 fine silver, weighing 11.111 grams, and measuring 28 millimeters in diameter, and 2 millimeters in thickness. Featured on the obverse was a left-facing effigy of Frederick I, partially encircled by a legend reading "FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN". Directly underneath the portrait of the grand duke was a "G" mint mark, which indicated the coin was struck at the Karlsruhe Mint. The Reichsadler of the German Empire was featured on the reverse, accompanied by the state title of the Second Reich (DEUTSCHES REICH), the coin's value, and the year. Production of the 2 mark coin ceased in 1888, but recommenced in 1892. Between those years, no major alterations were made to coins of Baden, except for the Reichsadler on the reverse of common coinage. Before 1890, the heraldic eagle featured on imperial German coinage bore a large shield on its breast, but in 1891, the shield became smaller and the Reichsadler itself became larger. Between the years 1876, 1877, 1880, 1883, and 1888, a total of 2,697,678 2 mark coins of Baden were issued, and between 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902, at least 1,470,432 were produced, with an unrecorded number of coins minted in proof quality between 1901 and 1902.
The third general issue of Baden 2 mark coins was introduced late in 1902. The original composition, mass, and measurements of the first two issues were retained with the third. An updated right-facing image of Grand Duke Frederick I was engraved on the coin's obverse, accompanied by the same legend from before, "FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN", and the same "G" mint mark. The Reichsadler of the second issue was used on the reverse of the third, and was still accompanied by the state title of the German Empire, the coin's value, and the year. Between 1902 and 1907, a total of 3,390,401 third issue Baden 2 mark coins were issued. None were struck in proof quality.
1902 commemorative coin[edit | edit source]
In 1852, Frederick I's brother, Louis II, succeeded his father, Leopold I, as Grand Duke of Baden. However, because Louis suffered from a mental illness, Frederick worked as his regent until 1856, when he succeeded Louis as Grand Duke. In 1902, 50 years following the beginning of Frederick I's reign, initially as regent, and then as grand duke, a special Baden 2 mark coin was minted to commemorate the event. A right-facing portrait of Frederick I was engraved in the center of the coin's obverse, partially surrounded by a legend reading "FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN". Directly underneath the portrait was an olive branch, with the years "1852" and "1902" inscribed below it. The reverse was identical to that of the second issue and the third issue (which was issued after the 1902 commemorative coin) of Baden 2 mark coins. A total of 375,018 of these coins were issued, with none being struck in proof quality.
Wedding anniversary coin[edit | edit source]
Princess Louise of Prussia and Grand Duke Frederick I married on September 20, 1856 at Neues Palais in Potsdam. Fifty years later, in 1906, a commemorative Baden 2 mark coin was minted to mark their 50th anniversary. The obverse featured Duke Frederick I in the coin's foreground, and a portrait of Duchess Louise behind him in the midground. A legend reading "FRIEDRICH UND LUISE VON BADEN • 1856 • 1906" partially encircled both effigies. Unlike most of the previous 2 mark coins, a mint mark was not present on the 1906 commemorative coin. The composition, mass, and measurements were identical to those of the previous issues, and the reverse was identical to that of the second and third Baden 2 mark coins. A total of 350,200 of these coins were minted, with 200 being struck in proof quality with a matte finish.
Death of Frederick I coin[edit | edit source]
Frederick I died in his summer residence at Mainau in southern Germany on September 28, 1907. In commemoration and respect of the former Grand Duke, a Baden 2 mark coin marking his death was struck that year at the Karlsruhe Mint. The same portrait of Frederick used on general issue Baden 2 mark coins since 1902 was engraved in the center of the obverse, accompanied by the same legend present on the third issue, "FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN". Directly underneath the portrait was another inscription, which read "✶1826 †1907". No mint mark was present. The coin's reverse was identical to that of the circulating general issue of the time. Its composition, mass, and measurements were the same as those of the issues of the 2 mark coins that came before it. At least 350,000 of these coins were minted, with an unknown number being struck in proof quality.
Coin of Frederick II[edit | edit source]
Frederick II's reign as Grand Duke of Baden began on September 28, 1907, following the death of his father. However, a coin featuring his image was not minted until 1911, when the fourth general issue of Baden 2 mark coins was introduced. A left-facing effigy of Grand Duke Frederick II was engraved on the coin's obverse, partially encircled by a legend reading "FRIEDRICH II GROSHERZOG VON BADEN". A "G" mint mark was inscribed directly underneath the portrait. The reverse was identical to those of the previous Baden 2 mark issues. Also, its composition, mass, and measurements were identical to those of the precedent issues. The Frederick II coins were minted in 1911 and 1913, and between these years, at least 1,009,050 were produced, with an unrecorded number from 1911 being minted in proof quality.
Notes and references[edit | edit source]
|German gold mark|
|Banknotes||5 ℳ • 10 ℳ • 20 ℳ • 50 ℳ • 100 ℳ • 1000 ℳ|
|Coins||1 ₰ • 2 ₰ • 5 ₰ • 10 ₰ • 20 ₰ • 25 ₰ • 50 ₰ • ½ ℳ • 1 ℳ • 2 ℳ • 3 ℳ • 5 ℳ • 10 ℳ • 20 ℳ|
|Miscellaneous||Bavarian Mint • Berlin State Mint • Coinage Act of 1873 • Darmstadt Mint • Dresden Mint • Frankfurt Mint • Hamburg Mint • Hannover Mint • Karlsruhe State Mint • Muldenhütten Mint • Reichsbank • Reichskassenschein • Stuttgart State Mint|