|Measurements and composition|
Broken trident, value
|v · d · e|
The 1 cent coin is a current circulation piece of Barbados. It was issued by the Central Bank of Barbados in four types and two major designs from 1973 until its discontinuation in 2012. Because Barbados lacks a mint of its own, production of the cent was outsourced to foreign coining facilities, notably the Franklin Mint in the United States, the Royal Canadian Mint, and the Royal Mint of the United Kingdom.
The first cent piece, as part of Barbados' first series of circulation coins, was introduced in 1973 and struck without interruption until 1975. In 1976, on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Barbados' independence, the Central Bank of Barbados issued a commemorative cent of a similar design instead; production of the first type then resumed in 1977 and continued until 1991. In 1992, a new 1 cent coin was introduced with the same designs as the first type, but was struck in a different metal. This piece was manufactured almost annually until 2006, and was replaced in 2007 by a new type of the same design but different composition and mass. This third piece was short-lived, however, and was officially discontinued in 2012.
On May 7, 2014, the Central Bank of Barbados stopped issuing the Barbadian cent due to its high production cost and lack of use. Currently, the central bank has no immediate plans to demonetize the cent, allowing it to be used or exchanged at retailers and banks that continue to accept 1 cent pieces. At these places, each of the four types of the Barbadian cent continue to circulate for their face value of 0.01 Barbadian dollar, the equivalent of 0.005 United States dollar.
Non-commemorative issues (1973–2012)Edit
The Barbadian Parliament passed the Central Bank Act on May 2, 1972, officially authorizing the creation of a central bank and a new national currency, the Barbadian dollar. After over a year of preparation, the new dollar was introduced on December 3, 1973, replacing the East Caribbean dollar at a rate of 1:1. The first series of circulation coins of the currency, consisting of denominations of 1, 5, 10, and 25 cents and 1 dollar, was also released on December 3. All of the coins of the series were designed by British sculptor Philip Nathan (1943–). The bronze cent of this initial series was manufactured from 1973 to 1991 with a single interruption in 1976. During its run, it was manufactured at the Franklin Mint (1973–1984), Royal Canadian Mint (1973–1988), and Royal Mint (1989–1991).
In 1992, a new cent type was introduced. The coin's designs are identical to those of first Barbadian cent, but due to rising production costs, it was struck in copper-plated zinc instead of bronze. This piece was manufactured at the Royal Canadian Mint from 1992 to 2006, with a single interruption in 1994. Anomalous coins in copper-plated zinc dated 1987, 1989, 1990, and 1991 are also reported to exist.
Because of continuously rising production costs, the Barbadian cent underwent a final composition change in 2007, when it began being manufactured in copper-plated steel. The piece remained in production at the Royal Canadian Mint until its discontinuation 2012.
The Barbadian cent is similar in size to the Canadian and United States pennies. According to the Central Bank of Barbados, each piece measures 18.861 millimeters in diameter (often rounded to 19 mm in catalogs) and 1.565 millimeters in thickness. The mass of the metal varieties differs, with the bronze type measuring 3.11 grams, the copper-plated zinc coin measuring 2.5 grams, and the copper-plated steel piece measuring 2.78 grams. Regardless of type, the Barbadian cent has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and like most coins, is round in shape. The rims of both sides of the piece are raised and undecorated.
The coat of arms of Barbados appears in the middle of each type's obverse. Such an illustration consists of a central escutcheon containing a depiction of a shortleaf fig (Ficus citrifolia) and two red birds of paradise (Caesalpinia pulcherrima), supported to the left by a dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus) and to the right by a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). A helmet and Barbadian fist holding two stalks of sugarcane surmount the escutcheon in the arms, while a ribbon bearing the national motto "PRIDE AND INDUSTRY" is displayed below. On the coin, printed counterclockwise along the rim below the arms, is the English word "BARBADOS". The Gregorian date of minting appears in the center of the piece, its first two digits separated from the last two by the arms. A small trident head is engraved below both pairs of digits. In addition, on pieces minted at the Franklin Mint, an "FM" mark appears below the arms in small print.
A trident head, described as a "broken trident" by the Central Bank of Barbados, is illustrated in the center of the reverse. This symbol, which also appears on the flag of Barbados, represents the symbolic break from Barbados' status as a British colony and also the nation's democracy. In the image on the coin, seaweed additionally wraps around the trident's central prong and broken staff in the form of a "B", an abbreviation for "Barbados". Engraved clockwise along the periphery below the trident is the face value "ONE CENT". The "PN" initials of the artist are additionally engraved in small print below the trident's third prong.
A total of over 87,200,000 or 88,000,000 bronze coins were manufactured from 1973 to 1991, including over 87,000,000 business strikes and around 100,000 special matte, proof, and uncirculated coins. Of these, all of the special pieces were distributed in official mint and proof sets by the Central Bank of Barbados.
Mintages of the copper-plated zinc coin are currently unknown. Most examples were minted with a standard finish, but a small number were struck with Brilliant Uncirculated and proof finishes. The uncirculated and proof coins were sold in sets by the Central Bank of Barbados.
Mintages of the copper-plated steel piece are also unknown. Only business strikes of this particular type exist.
|1973||Royal Canadian Mint||5,000,000|
|1973 Matte||Franklin Mint||7,500|
|1973 Proof||Franklin Mint||97,454|
|1974||Royal Canadian Mint||7,000,000|
|1974 Matte||Franklin Mint||8,708|
|1974 Proof||Franklin Mint||35,600|
|1975||Royal Canadian Mint||8,000,000|
|1975 Matte||Franklin Mint||5,000|
|1975 Proof||Franklin Mint||20,458|
|1975 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||1,360|
|1977 Matte||Franklin Mint||2,102|
|1977 Proof||Franklin Mint||5,014|
|1977 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||468|
|1978||Royal Canadian Mint||4,807,000|
|1978 Matte||Franklin Mint||2,000|
|1978 Proof||Franklin Mint||4,436|
|1978 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||2,517|
|1979||Royal Canadian Mint||5,606,000|
|1979 Matte||Franklin Mint||1,500|
|1979 Proof||Franklin Mint||4,126|
|1979 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||523|
|1980||Royal Canadian Mint||14,400,000|
|1980 Matte||Franklin Mint||1,500|
|1980 Proof||Franklin Mint||2,111|
|1980 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||649|
|1981||Royal Canadian Mint||10,160,000|
|1981 Matte||Franklin Mint||1,500|
|1981 Proof||Franklin Mint||943|
|1981 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||327|
|1982||Royal Canadian Mint||5,040,000|
|1982 Proof||Franklin Mint||843|
|1982 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||1,500|
|1983 Matte||Franklin Mint||1,500|
|1983 Proof||Franklin Mint||459|
|1983 Uncirculated||Franklin Mint||Unknown|
|1984||Royal Canadian Mint||5,008,000|
|1984 Matte||Franklin Mint||868|
|1984 Proof||Franklin Mint||Unknown|
|1985||Royal Canadian Mint||Unknown|
|1991||Royal Canadian Mint||Unknown|
|2007||Royal Canadian Mint||Unknown|
Independence coin (1976)Edit
After negotiating its independence with the United Kingdom in June 1966, Barbados officially became a sovereign state on November 30 of the same year. In 1976, in celebration of the 10th anniversary of this event, the Central Bank of Barbados released a series of commemorative 1, 5, 10, and 25 cent and 1 dollar pieces into circulation. Production of the standard circulation coins was temporarily halted because of this issue, but resumed again in 1977. Each of these single-year pieces was designed by British sculptor Philip Nathan and struck under commission at the Royal Canadian Mint and Franklin Mint.
The 1 cent piece is composed of bronze and measures 3.11 grams in mass, 18.861 millimeters in diameter, and 1.565 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. The rims of both sides of the coin are raised and decorated with a beaded border.
The coat of arms of Barbados appears in the center of the obverse, the state title "BARBADOS" engraved counterclockwise at the periphery below. Printed to the left of the arms is the date "1966", representing the year of Barbados' independence, and written to the right is the year "1976", indicating the date of the 10th anniversary. Because the year "1976" is used as part of a decorative element and does not function as a date of minting, the piece is considered undated. A trident head is illustrated below each year, and on pieces minted at the Franklin Mint, a small "FM" mark appears below the coat of arms.
A trident with seaweed curled around it is illustrated in the middle of the reverse. Printed counterclockwise along the rim below is the face value "ONE CENT", and inscribed in small print below the trident's third prong are the "PN" initials of the artist.
A total of 6,423,925 examples of the coin were manufactured, including 6,406,000 business strikes; 5,000 matte pieces; 996 proofs; and 11,929 special uncirculated pieces. Of these, all of the matte, proof, and uncirculated coins were distributed in official sets by the Central Bank of Barbados.
|Circulation||Royal Canadian Mint||6,406,000|
- Numismatic Guaranty Corporation – Barbados - Cent, KM# 10 (1973–1991) • Barbados - Cent, KM# 19 (1976) • Barbados - Cent, KM# 10a (1992–2006) • Barbados - Cent, KM# 10b (2007–2012)
- Colnect – 1 Cent (1973–1991) • 1 Cent (1976) • 1 Cent (1992–2006) • 1 Cent (2007–2012)
- Numista – 1 Cent (1973–1991) • 1 Cent (1976) • 1 Cent (1992–2006) • 1 Cent (2007–2012) (English) (French)
- Central Bank of Barbados – Current Circulation Coins • Cultural Symbols on Circulation Coins • Withdrawal of the One Cent Coin
- Schön, Günter and Gerhard, Weltmünzkatalog 20. Jahrhundert, 44. Auflage, 2016, Battenberg Gietl Verlag, ISBN 9783866461192
- Barbadian dollar on the English Wikipedia