- Not to be confused with the Fijian 1 penny coin.
|Measurements and composition|
Elizabeth II, monarch title, year
|v · d · e|
The 1 cent coin is a former circulation piece of Fiji. It was issued in six types and three major designs from 1969 to 2006, one under the Colony of Fiji, four under the Dominion, and two under the current Republic. Examples struck after 1986 were distributed by the Reserve Bank of Fiji, whereas all earlier pieces were issued by the Central Monetary Authority and Government of Fiji. Because Fiji lacks a mint of its own, production of all six types was outsourced to foreign mints.
The first coin of the denomination was introduced by the Colony of Fiji in 1969, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth II (1926–; r. 1950–1987). It was then produced intermittently until 1985, two years before the independent Dominion of Fiji was disestablished. A non-circulating silver version of the coin was also produced in 1976, and a commemorative celebrating the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was issued from 1977 to 1982.
In 1986, under the Dominion of Fiji, a redesigned cent was released. It was produced into 1987, and then replaced in 1990 by a new type of the same design. This coin, the first cent of the Republic of Fiji, was struck until 2005 and followed in 2006 by the final Fijian cent.
The six coins were initially legal tender in their country of origin, circulating for a nominal value of 0.01 dollar. Because of their low purchasing power and resulting lack of use, they were withdrawn beginning on November 13, 2008, and officially demonetized in April 2009. As a result, they no longer circulate on the islands of Fiji.
First standard design (1969–1985)Edit
In following the global trend toward decimalization, the Colony of Fiji adopted the dollar on January 15, 1969, replacing the pound at a rate of 2 pounds to 1 dollar. The first series of coins for this new currency, consisting of denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 cents and 1 dollar, was introduced by the colonial Fijian government on that date. These pieces were then joined by the first 50 cent coin in 1975. The 1 cent piece of the series was struck intermittently from 1969 to 1985 at the Royal Mint of the United Kingdom.
In November 1976, the Central Monetary Authority of Fiji issued .925 fine silver versions of Fiji's circulation coins. Each was struck under contract at the Royal Mint of the United Kingdom earlier that year.
The circulating coin is composed of a bronze alloy and measures 1.94 grams in mass, 17.53 millimeters in diameter, and 1.15 millimeters in thickness. In comparison, the silver piece measures a slightly heavier 2.26 grams, but is otherwise the same size. Both types have medallic alignment and plain edges, and are round in shape. The rims of both sides of the two pieces are raised, and that of the reverse is decorated with a dentilated border.
The obverse, designed by British artist Arnold Machin (1911–1999), features a right-facing illustration of Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara on her head. Printed clockwise along the rim to the left is the caption "ELIZABETH II", and engraved in the same direction at the periphery to the right is the state title "FIJI" followed by the Gregorian date of minting.
The reverse, designed by American commercial artist Ken Payne (1938–2012), displays a traditional yaqona (kava) bowl, locally known as a tanoa, in its center. In Fiji, tribes use such a bowl during the ceremony of sevusevu, which is often performed when visitors arrive at a village. Accompanying the illustration is the face value "1 cent", the numeral inscribed above the bowl and the word displayed below.
Over 23,377,000 examples of the bronze coin were manufactured, including a large number of business strikes, a small amount of Brilliant Uncirculated pieces, and around 13,000 proofs. All of the uncirculated and proof pieces were distributed in official mint and proof sets.
About 3,012 silver proofs were produced in 1976. They were issued exclusively in proof sets by the Central Monetary Authority of Fiji.
FAO design (1977–1982)Edit
Since its inception in 1945, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has provided assistance to various countries, including Fiji, in its mission to end world hunger. In celebration of the nongovernmental organization, the Central Monetary Authority of Fiji released a commemorative cent in 1977. From then, it was struck annually at the Royal Mint of the United Kingdom until 1982.
The coin is composed of a bronze alloy and measures 1.94 grams in mass, 17.53 millimeters in diameter, and 1.15 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. Both of its rims are raised and undecorated.
The obverse is virtually identical to that of the cent introduced in 1969. Machin's right-facing portrait of Elizabeth II wearing the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara appears in the center, the caption "ELIZABETH II" inscribed clockwise along the rim to the left. Engraved in the same direction at the periphery to the right is the state title "FIJI" followed by the Gregorian date of minting.
The reverse, designed by Ken Payne, features a stalk of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) in its center. Introduced from Asia, this species of grain has been grown in Fiji for decades and has gradually become a staple in the country. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the English legend "GROW MORE FOOD", and displayed on two horizontal lines to the right is the face value "1 cent". The numeral in this value is rendered in larger, bolder print than the following word.
Approximately 17,893,500 examples of the coin were manufactured, including 17,882,000 business strikes; 4,000 Brilliant Uncirculated pieces; and 7,500 proofs. All of the uncirculated and proof examples were distributed in official sets by the Central Monetary Authority of Fiji.
Second standard design (1986–2006)Edit
Around 1982, officials at the Royal Mint decided to replace Machin's coin portrait of Elizabeth II with a new likeness of the queen. The mint invited 17 artists to submit portrait models for consideration, and of the 38 proposals received, one by Israeli-British sculptor Raphael David Maklouf (1937–) was ultimately selected. This controversial new portrait became available as early as 1985, but was not adopted on Fiji's coins until 1986, when a new series of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cent pieces was released. The 1 cent coin of this series, issued in 1986 and 1987, was struck under contract at the Royal Australian Mint in Canberra, Australia.
In 1987, following two successful coups d'état, the Dominion of Fiji was replaced by the current Republic. Under this new government, the Fijian monarchy was quickly abolished, and Elizabeth II was removed as the nation's head of state. In spite of this, when the Reserve Bank of Fiji introduced a series of new 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cent pieces in 1990, Elizabeth's likeness continued to be used. The 1 cent piece of the series, identical in design to the 1986 cent, was struck under contract at the Royal Canadian Mint in Ottawa, Canada, from 1990 to 2005.
By 2006, the production cost of the cent had begun to exceed its face value. In response, that year the Reserve Bank of Fiji released a new cent composed of a cheaper metal. Issued solely in 2006, this piece was struck under contract at the Royal Canadian Mint.
Coins minted from 1986 to 1987 are composed of bronze and measure 1.94 grams in mass. Examples produced from 1990 to 2005 are instead made of copper-plated zinc and are slightly lighter, weighing 1.58 grams, while pieces struck in 2006 are composed of copper-plated steel and weigh 1.76 grams. All cents manufactured from 1986 to 2006, regardless of composition, measure 17.53 millimeters in diameter and 1.15 millimeter in thickness. They have medallic alignment and plain edges, and are round in shape. The rims of both sides of each piece are raised, and that of the reverse is decorated with a dentilated border.
Maklouf's right-facing portrait of Elizabeth II, which shows the queen wearing the George IV State Diadem, Coronation Earrings, and Coronation Necklace, is displayed in the middle of the obverse. Printed clockwise along the rim to the left is the caption "ELIZABETH II", and inscribed in the same direction at the periphery to the right is the state title "FIJI" followed by the Gregorian date of minting.
The reverse is identical to that of the first Fijian cent. Designed by Ken Payne, it features an illustration of a traditional yaqona bowl in its center. Accompanying this depiction is the face value "1 cent", with the numeral inscribed above the bowl and the word displayed below.
Around 6,800,000 examples of the bronze coin were produced. Only business strikes of this type are reported to exist.
Over 96,970,000 examples of the copper-plated zinc piece were manufactured, including a large number of business strikes and a small amount of Brilliant Uncirculated coins. All of the uncirculated coins were distributed in official mint sets by the Reserve Bank of Fiji.
The mintage of the copper-plated steel coin is currently unknown. Only business strikes of this type are reported to exist.
- Numismatic Guaranty Corporation – Fiji - Cent, KM# 27 (1969–1985) • Fiji - Cent, KM# 27a (1976) • Fiji - Cent, KM# 39 (1977–1982) • Fiji - Cent, KM# 49 (1986–1987) • Fiji - Cent, KM# 49a (1990–2005) • Fiji - Cent, KM# 49b (2006)
- Colnect – 1 Cent (1969–1985) • 1 Cent (1976 Silver Proof) • 1 Cent (1977–1982 FAO) • 1 Cent (1986–1987) • 1 Cent (1990–2005) • 1 Cent (2006)
- Numista – 1 Cent (1969–1985) • 1 Cent (1976 Silver Proof) • 1 Cent (1977–1982 FAO) • 1 Cent (1986–1987) • 1 Cent (1990–2005) • 1 Cent (2006) (English) (French)
- Schön, Günter and Gerhard, Weltmünzkatalog 20. Jahrhundert, 44. Auflage, 2016, Battenberg Gietl Verlag, ISBN 9783866461192
- Fijian dollar on the English Wikipedia