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This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).

Republic of India   Bhārat Gaṇarājya




State emblem

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)

"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]

Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"[2][3]

"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]



National song "Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]


Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green

Capital New Delhi


Largest city
Official languages
Recognised regional languages

State level and Eighth Schedule[8][show]

National language None[9][10][11]

See Religion in India

Demonym(s) Indian
Membership UNWTOBRICSSAARCSCOG8+5G20Commonwealth of Nations
Government Federalparliamentaryconstitutional republic

• President

Ram Nath Kovind

• Vice President

Venkaiah Naidu

• Prime Minister

Narendra Modi

• Chief Justice

Ranjan Gogoi

• Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Om Birla
Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

Rajya Sabha

• Lower house

Lok Sabha

from the United Kingdom

• Dominion

15 August 1947

• Republic

26 January 1950

• Total

3,287,263[6] km2(1,269,219 sq mi)[c](7th)

• Water (%)


• 2016 estimate


• 2011 census


• Density

402.8/km2(1,043.2/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate

• Total

 $11.468 trillion[16](3rd)

• Per capita

 $8,484[16] (119th)
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate

• Total

 $2.972 trillion[16](5th)

• Per capita

 $2,199[16] (142nd)
Gini (2013) 33.9[17]

medium · 79th

HDI (2017)  0.640[18]

medium · 130th

Currency Indian rupee () (INR)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Driving side left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD .in (others)

India (official name: the Republic of India;[19] HindiBhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[d] ChinaNepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.[20] Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.[21]Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus valley civilisation of the third millennium BCE.[22] By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Vedas, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.[23] The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions.[24] By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,[25] and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.[26] Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta empires based in the Ganges basin,[27] their collective era suffused with wide-ranging creativity,[28] but also marked by the declining status of women,[29] and the incorporation of untouchability into an organized system of belief.[e][30] In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.[31]

In the early medieval era, JudaismZoroastrianismChristianity and Islam put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.[32]Armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's plains,[33] eventually establishing the Delhi sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.[34] In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.[35] In the PunjabSikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalized religion.[36] The Mughal empire, in 1525, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,[37] leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.[f][38] Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty.[39] British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,[40] but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.[41] A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged,[42] which was noted for nonviolent resistance and led India to its independence in 1947.

India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1 billion 211 million in 2011.[43] During the same time, its nominal per capita income, increased from $64 annually to $2,041, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,[44] India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class.[45] It has a space program which includes several planned or completed lunar missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[46] India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.[47] India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbors, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.[48] Among the socioeconomic challenges India faces are gender inequalitychild malnutrition,[49] and rising levels of air pollution.[50] India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots.[51] Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area.[52] India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture,[53] is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.



According to the Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition 2009), the name India is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference toSouth Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient GreekIndos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," but especially the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin.[54][55] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".[56]

The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] ([4]listen)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India,[57][58] is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley,[59][60] Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.[57][61]

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] ([5]listen)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.[57][61][62]


Main articles: History of India and History of the Republic of India

Ancient India[]



(top) A pre-14th century manuscript of the Rigveda, orally composed and transmitted from 1500 BCE to 1200 BCE (bottom) The "Battle at Lanka," a scene from the Sanskrit epic Ramayana—composed between 700 BCE and 200 CE—was illustrated by Sahibdin, an artist of the 17th century.

By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens., had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved.[63][64] [65] The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago.[66] Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh.[67] After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan.[68] These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[69][68] the first urban culture in South Asia,[70] which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India.[71] Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daroHarappaDholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.[70]

During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Ageones.[72] The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism,[73] were composed during this period,[74] and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[72] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.[73] The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period.[75] On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.[72] In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,[76] as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.[76] File:





Clockwise from upper left: (a) A map of the rough extent of the empire of Ashoka, ca 250 BCE; (b) The Dhamek Stupaat Sarnath, 249 BCE, the site of the Buddha's first sermon two centuries earlier; (c) The map of India, ca 350 CE; (d) Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves, fifth century CE

In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.[77][78] The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.[79] Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India.[80][81][82] In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,[83] and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire.[84] The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.[85][86] The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.[87][88]

The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.[89][90] In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women.[91][84] By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.[92][93] Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself.[94] The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculptureand architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite.[93] Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian scienceastronomymedicine, and mathematics made significant advances.[93]

Medieval India[]



(left) A map of India in 1022 CE; (right)Brihadeshwara templeThanjavur, completed in 1010 CE

The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity.[95] When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan.[96] When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal.[96] When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south.[96] No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region.[95] During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes.[97] The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.[97]

In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.[98] They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent.[98] Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well.[99] Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.[99] By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day MyanmarThailandLaosCambodiaVietnamPhilippinesMalaysia, and Java.[100] Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.[100]



(left) India in 1398 CE, during the Delhi Sultanate (marked "Afghan empire" in the map); (b) The Qutub Minar 73 metres (240 ft) tall completed by the Sultan of Delhi,Iltutmish

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.[101] The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.[102][103] By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migrationof fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.[104][105] The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire.[106] Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,[107] and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.[106]

Early modern India[]




Clockwise from upper left: (a) India in 1525 at the onset of Mughal rule; (b) India in 1605 during the rule of Akbar; (c) A distant view of the Taj Mahal from the Agra Fort

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers,[108] fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.[109] The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices[110][111] and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,[112] leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.[113]Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.[112] The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture[114] and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,[115] caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.[113] The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion,[113] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.[116] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[117] Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.[117] As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.[118]




Clockwise from top left: (a) India under BritishEast India Company rule in 1795; (b) India in 1848; (c) A two mohur gold coin issued by the Company in 1835 with the bust of William IV, Kingon the obverse, and the face value in English and Persian, on the reverse

By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts.[119][120] The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.[121][119][122][123] Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s.[124] India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period.[119] By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively having been made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.[125]

Modern India[]

Main article: History of the Republic of India




Clockwise from upper left: (a) 1909 Map of the British Indian Empire; (b) Railway network of India in 1909, fourth largest in the world; (c) New Delhi became the capital of India in 1911, and was inaugurated in 1931.

Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.[126][127][128][129] However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.[130][131] Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.[132][133]In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.[134][135][136][137]

The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.[138] There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines,[139] and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.[140] There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.[141] The railway network provided critical famine relief,[142] notably reduced the cost of moving goods,[142] and helped the nascent Indian-owned industry.[141]


Jawaharlal Nehru sharing a joke with Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Mumbai, 6 July 1946.

After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served,[143] a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.[144] During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[145] The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.[146]

Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic.[147] It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.[148] Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies,[149] and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[148]Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;[148] by religious and caste-related violence;[150] by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies;[151] and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India.[152] It has unresolved territorial disputes with China[153] and with Pakistan.[153]The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.[154] India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.[155]


Main article: Geography of India


India's orographical features include the Ganges- and Indus plains, the Western- and Eastern Ghats, the Thar desert, the Aravalli hills, and Satpura and Vindhya ranges


The average onset dates and wind directions during India's southwest summer monsoon.


Fishing boats are moored and lashed together during an approaching monsoon storm whose dark clouds can be seen overhead. The scene is a tidal creek in Anjarle, a coastal village in Maharashtra

India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate.[156]India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.[156]Simultaneously, the vast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate.[156] These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crusteventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas.[156] Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment[157] and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[158] Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.[159]

The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.[160] To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats;[161] the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude[g] and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude.[162]

India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains.[163] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.[163]


Flowing near Hampi is the Tungabhadra river, the major right bank tributary of the Krishna river, a peninsular river, which empties into the Bay of Bengal. The coracles, made of wicker, are traditionally covered with hide, their circular shape preventing them from overturning in rivers with rocky outcrops.[164]

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[165] Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes.[166][167] Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;[168] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[169] Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.[170] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweepcoral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[171]

The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.[172] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[173][174] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.[172] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wettropical drysubtropical humid, and montane.[175]


Main articles: Forestry in India and Wildlife of India


A 1909 map showing India's forests, bush and small wood, cultivated lands, steppe, and desert.


A 2010 map shows India's forest cover averaged out for each state.


India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, their numbers having increased to nearly 3,000 in 2019,[176]but human-tiger conflict in India has also increased. The Bengal tiger is one of the IUCN-designated endangered animals.[177]Shown here is Maya, a Bengal tigress of the Tadoba Andhari Tiger ReserveMaharashtra.

India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for countries, numbering 17, that display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them.[178] India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptilespecies, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[179][180] Fully third of Indian plant species are endemic.[181] India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots,[51] or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.[h][182]

India's forest cover is 701,673 km2 (270,917 sq mi), which is 21.35% of the country's total land area, can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy[183] Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 2.61% of India's land area.[183] It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India.[184] Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.59% of India's land area,[183] and predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India.[184] Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.14% of India's land area,[183] and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan plateau and the western Gangetic plain.[184]

Among the notable trees that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine,[185] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul,[186] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro,[187] and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment,[188]

Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago.[189] India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[190] Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographicalpasses flanking the Himalaya.[184] This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians.[180] Notable endemics are the vulnerable[191] Hooded leaf monkey[192] and the threatened[193] Beddom's toad[193][194] of the Western Ghats.


Indian vultures, (Gyps indicus), in a nest on the tower of the Chaturbhuj Temple, Orchha, Madhya Pradesh. The vulture became nearly extinct in India in the 1990s from having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-laced cattle.[195]

India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.[196]These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin and the critically endangeredGharial, a crocodilian; the Great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.[195] The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[197] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.[198] India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuariesand thirteen biosphere reserves,[199] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reservestwenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[200]

Politics and government[]


Main article: Politics of India


Social movements have long been a part of democracy in India. The picture shows a section of 25,000 landless people in the state of Madhya Pradeshlistening to Rajagopal P. V. before their 350 km march, Janadesh 2007, from Gwalior to New Delhi to publicize their demand for further land reform in India.[201]

India is the world's most populous Democracy .[202] A Parliamentary Republic with a multi-party system,[203] it has seven recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties.[204] The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture,[205] and the BJP right-wing.[206][207][208] For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,[209] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.[210]

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.[211]Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.[212]


US president Barack Obama at the Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing members of parliament of both houses, the lower, Lok Sabha, and the upper, Rajya Sabha, in a joint session, 8 November 2010.

A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term.[213] In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties.[214] That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.[215] In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.[216] The incumbent Indian prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.[217][218][219]


Main articles: Government of India and Constitution of India


The official home of the President of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan, was designed between 1911 and 1931 by British architects, Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker for the Viceroy of Indiaduring the British Raj.[220]

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union, or central, government and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,[221] originally stated India to be a "sovereigndemocratic republic;" this characterization was amended in 1971 to "a sovereignsocialistseculardemocratic republic.[222] India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states,[223] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.[224][225]

National symbols[1]
Tiranga (Tricolour)
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Language None[9][10][11]
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vande Mataram
Currency  (Indian rupee)
Calendar Saka
Animal Tiger (land)

River dolphin (aquatic)

Bird Indian peafowl
Flower Lotus
Fruit Mango
Tree Banyan
River Ganga
Game Not declared[226]

The Government of India comprises three branches:[227]

Administrative divisions[]

Main article: Administrative divisions of India

See also: Political integration of India

A clickable map of the 28 states and 9 union territories of India  

States (1–28) & Union territories (A-I) hide
1. Andhra Pradesh 20. Punjab
2. Arunachal Pradesh 21. Rajasthan
3. Assam 22. Sikkim
4. Bihar 23. Tamil Nadu
5. Chhattisgarh 24. Telangana
6. Goa 25. Tripura
7. Gujarat 26. Uttar Pradesh
8. Haryana 27. Uttarakhand
9. Himachal Pradesh 28. West Bengal
10. Jharkhand A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
11. Karnataka B. Chandigarh
12. Kerala C. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
13. Madhya Pradesh D. Daman and Diu
14. Maharashtra E. Jammu and Kashmir
15. Manipur F. Ladakh
16. Meghalaya G. Lakshadweep
17. Mizoram H. National Capital Territory of Delhi
18. Nagaland I. Puducherry
19. Odisha


India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 9 union territories.[242] All states, as well in addition to the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following on the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[243] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged.[citation needed] Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.[citation needed]

Foreign, economic and strategic relations[]

Main articles: Foreign relations of India and Indian Armed Forces


During the 1950s and 60s, India played a pivotal role in the Non-aligned movement. Shown here are from left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Republic (now Egypt), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru of India, at the Conference for Non-Aligned Nations, in Belgrade, September 1961.

In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[244]After initially cordial relations with neighboring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 194719651971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war , followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh.[245] In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.[246]

Aside from ongoing special relationship with Russia,[247] India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.[248] India has close economic ties with South America,[249] Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.[250][251]


The Indian Air Force contingent marching at the 221st Bastille Day military parade in Paris, on July 14, 2009. The parade at which India was the foreign guest was led by the India's oldest regiment, the Maratha Light Infantry, founded in 1768. France, with which India signed a strategic partnership in 1998, is now India's third-largest supplier of military equipment.

China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.[252] India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.[253] India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine.[254][255] It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet.[256]Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.[256]

Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.[257] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.[258] India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia,[259] France,[260] the United Kingdom,[261] and Canada.[262]


Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India (left, background) in talks with President Enrique Peña Nieto of Mexico during the former's visit to Mexico, June 2016

The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.[263] The official Indian defence budgetfor 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.[264] For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.[265]According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.[266] In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,[267] although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.[268] As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.[269] Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.[267] In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries.[270] In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over Rs 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.[271]


Main article: Economy of India




Clockwise from top: (a) A farmer in northwesternKarnataka ploughs his field with a tractor even as another in a field beyond does the same with a pair of oxen In 2018, 44% of India's total workforce was employed in agriculture.[272] (b) Women tend to a recently planted rice field in Junagadh district in Gujarat. 57% of India's female workforce was employed in agriculture in 2018.[273] (c) India is the world's largest producer of milk, with the largest population of cattle. In 2018, nearly 80% of India's milk was sourced from small farms with herd size between one and two, the milk harvested by hand milking.[274]

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2017 was nominally worth US$2.611 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$9.459 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity, or PPP.[16] With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–12,[275]India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.[276] However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP.[277] Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy;[278] since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system[279][280] by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.[281] India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.[282]

The 513.7-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2016.[263] The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.[283] Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.[242] Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.[242] In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.[279] In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%;[284] In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter.[285] Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.[242] Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.[242] Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.[286] India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in the calendar year 2013.[287]

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,[279] India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.[288] Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.[289] Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, as of 2010.[290] With 7 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, as of 2009.[291] India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.[289] However, hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes.[292]

Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020;[16] however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.[293]


A panorama of Bangalore, the center of India's software development economy. In the 1980s, when the first multinational corporations began to set up centers in India, they chose Bangalore because of the large pool of skilled graduates in the area, in turn due to the many science and engineering colleges in the surrounding region.[294]

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.[295] During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050.[295] The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class.[295] The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, educationenergy security, and public health and nutrition.[296]

According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).[297]



A vegetable retailer in the state of Tamil Nadu. Almost all the retail industry in India, which accounts for 10% of India's GDP, and 8% of its employment, belongs to the unorganized sector of individual and family-owned businesses.[298]

India's telecommunication industry, the world's fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 2010–11,[299] and after the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.[300]

The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10,[301] and exports by 36% during 2008–09.[302] India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable.[303] At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.[304]

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceuticalindustry.[305][306] India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world.[307][308] The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion INR (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion INR (3.94 B US$ – exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR).[309]

Socio-economic challenges[]


Female health workers about to begin another day of immunization against infectious diseases in 2006. Eight years later, and three years after India's last case of polio, the World Health Organization on 11 February 2014 declared India to be polio-free.

Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day,[310] the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005;[311] under its later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.[i][313] 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight.[314] According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished.[315][316] The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.[317]

According to a Walk Free Foundation report in 2016, there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labourchild labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.[318][319][320]According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million child labourers in 2001.[321]

Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.[322] Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.[323][324]

Demographics, languages, and religion[]

Main articles: Demographics of IndiaLanguages of India, and Religion in India

India by population density, religion, language


The population density of India by natural divisions, based on the Indian census of 1901


Population density of India by each state, based on the Indian census of 2011.


The prevailing religions of South Asia based on district-wise majorities in the 1901 census


The language families of South Asia

With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,[325] India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% during 2001–2011,[326] compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).[326] The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.[325] The median age was 27.6 as of 2016.[263] The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people.[327] Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.[328] India continues to face several public health-related challenges.[329][330]

Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3.[331] There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.[332] Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in the recent history of India. The number of Indians living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.[333] Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas.[334][335] The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.[336] According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them MumbaiDelhiKolkataChennaiBangaloreHyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population.[337] The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.[338] The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas.[336] Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Biharthe least with 63.82%.[338]


Hindu ascetic in VaranasiUttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh has the highest numbers of both Hindus and Muslims among all states.[339]The population by religion in 2011 was Hindus 79.73%, Muslims 19.26%, others 1.01%.[340]

India is home to two major language familiesIndo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language.[341] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.[342][343] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language";[5] it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".

The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam(14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others[j] (0.9%).[12] India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.[344][345]


Main article: Culture of India


Warli tribal painting by Jivya Soma Mashe from Thane, Maharashtra

Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years.[346] During the Vedic period (c. 1700 – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophymythologytheology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhármakármayóga, and mokṣa, were established.[56] India is notable for its religious diversity, with HinduismBuddhismSikhismIslamChristianity, and Jainismamong the nation's major religions.[347] The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads,[348] the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement,[347] and by Buddhist philosophy.[349]

Art, architecture and literature[]

Main articles: Architecture of India and Indian literature

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.[350] Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan,[351] explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;[352] it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.[353] As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute".[354] The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".[355] Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.[356]

The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language.[357] Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE–1200 BCE), the epics:Mahābhārata (c. 400 BCE–400 CE) and the Ramayana (c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa (c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry.[358][359][360] In Tamil literatureSangam Literature (c 600 BCE–300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work.[361][362][363][364] From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as KabīrTulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.[365] In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore,[366] who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Performing arts, and media[]

Main articles: Music of IndiaDance in IndiaCinema of India, and Television in India


The Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's national academy of performance arts, has recognized eight Indian dance styles to be classical. One such is Kuchipudi shown here. The others are: (a) Bharatanatyam; (b) Kathak ; (c) Kathakali; (d) Manipuri; (e) Odissi; (f) Sattriya; and (g) Mohiniyattam.

Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools.[367] Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakaliand mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.[368] Theatre in Indiamelds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[369] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[370] India has a theatre training institute NSD that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of CultureGovernment of India.[371]


Sarod performance at the Musée Guimet, Paris

The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.[372] Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the AssameseBengaliBhojpuriHindiKannadaMalayalamPunjabiGujaratiMarathiOdiaTamil, and Telugu languages.[373] South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of national film revenue.[374]

Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades.[375][376] The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.[377]Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite and/or cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).[378]


Main article: Culture of India

Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes".[379] India declared untouchability to be illegal[380] in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance.[381][382]

Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.[383] An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other elders in the family.[384] Marriage is thought to be for life,[384] and the divorce rate is extremely low.[385] As of 2001, just 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced, but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence.[385] Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.[386] Female infanticide and female foeticide in the country have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, as of 2005 it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation.[387][388]However, a report from 2011 has shown improvement in the gender ratio.[389] The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines.[390] Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.[391]

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include DiwaliGanesh ChaturthiThai PongalHoliDurga PujaEid ul-FitrBakr-IdChristmas, and Vaisakhi.[392][393]


Main article: Clothing in India



Left: Women in sari at an adult literacy class in Tamil Nadu; right: A man in dhoti, wearing a woollen shawl in Varanasi.

The most widely worn traditional dress in India, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped.[394] For women it eventually took the form of a sari, a single long piece of cloth, famously six yards long, and of width spanning the lower body.[394] The sari is tied around the waist and knotted at one end, wrapped around the lower body, and then over the shoulder.[394] In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil.[394] It has been combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, in the waist band of which it is now tucked for more secure fastening. It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end, passing over the shoulder, now serving to obscure the upper body's contours, and to cover the midriff.[394]

For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment.[395] It too is tied around the waist and wrapped.[395] In south India, it is usually wrapped around the lower body, the upper end tucked in the waistband, the lower left free. In northern India, it is in addition also wrapped once around each leg, before being brought up through the legs to be tucked in at the back. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the chadar (a shawl worn by both sexes for covering the upper body during colder weather, or a large veil worn by women for framing the head, or covering it) and the pagri (a turban, or a scarf worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold).[395]





From top left to bottom right (a) Women (from l. to r)churidars and kameez, with back to the camera; in jeans and sweater; in pink Shalwar kameez shopping; (b) A boy in kurta with chikan embroidery; (c) Girls in the Kashmirregion in embroidered hijab; (d) A tailor in pagri andkameez working outside a fabric shop.

Until the beginning of the first millennium CE the ordinary dress of people in India was entirely unstitched.[396] The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asiacirca 48 CE, popularized garments in the style of Central Asian cut and sewn ones among the elite in northern India.[396] However, it was not until Muslim rule was established, first with the Delhi sultanate and then the Mughal Empire, that the range of stitched clothes became wider in India and their use significantly widespread.[396] Among the various garments gradually establishing themselves in northern India during medieval and early-modern times, and now commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas both forms of trousers, as well as the tunics kurta and kameez.[396] In southern India, however, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.[396]

Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring or elastic belt, which causes them to become pleated around the waist.[397] The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic.[398] The side seams are left open below the waist-line,[399]), which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The kameez may have a European-style collar, a Mandarin-collar, or it may be collarless; in the latter case, its design as a women's garment is similar to a kurta.[400] At first worn by Muslim women, the use of Shalwar kameez gradually spread, making them a regional style,[401][402]especially in the Punjab region.[403] [404]

kurta, which traces its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, has evolved stylistically in India as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions.[396] It is traditionally made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and it can be loose or tight in the torso, typically falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer.[405]The sleeves of a traditional kurta fall to the wrist without narrowing, the ends hemmed but not cuffed; the kurta can be worn by both men and women; it is traditionally collarless, though standing collars are increasingly popular; and it can be worn over ordinary pajamas, loose shalwarschuridars, or less traditionally over jeans.[405]

In the last 50 years, fashions have changed much in India. Increasingly, in urban settings in northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions.[406] The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger women, who favor churidars or jeans.[406] The kurtas worn by young men usually fall to the shins and are seldom plain. In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round.[406] For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars.[406] The dhoti, the once universal garment of Hindu India, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven form of khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions,[407] is seldom seen in the cities,[406] reduced now, with brocaded border, to the liturgical vestments of Hindu priests.


Main article: Indian cuisine







Top l. to bottom r. (a) South Indian vegetarian thali, or platter; (b) an Assamese thali (c) Chicken biryani from Hyderabad, (d) Pork vindaloo from Goa, (e) Home-cooked lunch delivered to the office by the tiffin wallah; (e) Railway mutton curry from Odisha;

Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Indian foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu, cultural choices and traditions.[408]They have been also shaped by Islamic rule, particularly that of the Mughals, by the arrival of the Portuguese on India's southwestern shores, and by British rule, the influences of the three reflected, respectively, in the dishes of pilaf and biryani; the vindaloo; and the tiffin and the Railway mutton curry.[409] Earlier, the Columbian exchange had brought to India, the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, all becoming staples of use.[410] In turn, the spice trade between India and Europe was a catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[411]

The cereals grown in India, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of India's monsoons, and the variation across regions in the associated rainfall.[412] In general, the broad division of cereal zones in India, as determined by their dependence on rain, was firmly in place before the arrival of artificial irrigation.[412] Rice, which requires a lot of water, has been traditionally grown in the regions of high rainfall in the northeast and the western coast, wheat in the regions of moderate rainfall, such as India's northern plains, and millet in the regions of low rainfall, such as on the Deccan plateau andRajasthan.[413][412]

The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavorful savory dishes.[414]These latter include lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriandercuminturmericcinnamoncardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions.[414] In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavorful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables.[414]

A tandoor chef in the Turkman Gatearea of Old Delhi makes KhameeriRoti (a Muslim style of bread made with a sourdough starter), while his assistants help with the preparation.

A notable feature of Indian food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents.[415] The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic HinduismBuddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of India's Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, and the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains.[415] Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat,[416] and contributes to the low proportional consumption of meat to overall diet in India.[416] Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption accompanying higher economic growth.[417]

In the last millennium, the most significant import of cooking techniques into India occurred during the Mughal Empire. The cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from India to Central and West Asia; however, it was during Mughal rule that dishes, such as the pilaf,[413] developed in the interim during the Abbasid caliphate,[418] and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest.[419] To the simple yogurt marinade of Persia, onions, garlic, almonds, and spices began to be added in India.[419] Rice grown to the southwest of the Mughal capital, Agra, which had become famous in the Islamic world for its fine grain, was partially cooked and layered alternately with the sauteed meat, the pot sealed tightly, and slow cooked according to another Persian cooking technique, to produce what has today become the Indian biryani,[419] a feature of festive dining in many parts of India.[420]

In food served in restaurants in urban north India, and internationally, the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine, caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab region who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India, and had arrived in India as refugees.[415] The identification of Indian cuisine with the tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to this period.[415]

Sports and recreation[]

Main article: Sport in India


During a twenty four-year career, Sachin Tendulkar has set many batting records in cricket. The picture shows him about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing Australia in Bangalore on 10 October, 2010

In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddikho khopehlwaniand gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as kalarippayattumusti yuddhasilambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.[421][422]Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.[423]

The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.[424] India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games.[425][426] Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton[427] (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing,[428] and wrestling.[429] Football is popular in West BengalGoaTamil NaduKerala, and the north-eastern states.[430]


Cricket is the most popular sport in India.[431] Shown here is an example of street cricket.

Cricket is the most popular sport in India.[432] Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.[433]

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 19871996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.[434] India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.[435]

See also[]


  1. ^ "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. ^ According to Part XVII of the Constitution of IndiaHindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Union, along with English as an additional official language.[5][1][6]States and union territories can have a different official language of their own other than Hindi or English.
  3. ^ "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).
  4. ^ The Government of India also regards Afghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: "Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  5. ^ " The Chinese pilgrim also recorded evidence of the caste system as he could observe it. According to this evidence the treatment meted out to untouchables such as the Chandalas was very similar to that which they experienced in later periods. This would contradict assertions that this rigid form of the caste system emerged in India only as a reaction to the Islamic conquest.[30]
  6. ^ "Shah Jahan eventually sent her body 800 km (500 mi) to Agra for burial in the Rauza-i Munauwara (“Illuminated Tomb”) – a personal tribute and a stone manifestation of his imperial power. This tomb has been celebrated globally as the Taj Mahal."[38]
  7. ^ The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6' to its northernmost point.
  8. ^ A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographical region which has more than 1,500 vascular plant species, but less than 30% of its primary habitat.[182]
  9. ^ In 2015, the World Bank raised its international poverty line to $1.90 per day.[312]
  10. ^ Besides specific religions, the last two categories in the 2011 Census were "Other religions and persuasions" (0.65%) and "Religion not stated" (0.23%).


  1. Jump up to:a b c d National Informatics Centre 2005.
  2. Jump up to:a b c "National Symbols | National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017. The National Anthem of India Jana Gana Mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.
  3. ^ "National anthem of India: a brief on 'Jana Gana Mana'". News18. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  4. ^ Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
  5. Jump up to:a b Ministry of Home Affairs 1960.
  6. Jump up to:a b "Profile | National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  7. ^ "Constitutional Provisions – Official Language Related Part-17 of the Constitution of India"National Informatics Centre (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  8. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  9. Jump up to:a b Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court"The Times of IndiaArchived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  10. Jump up to:a b "Learning with the Times: India doesn't have any 'national language'"Archivedfrom the original on 10 October 2017.
  11. Jump up to:a b Press Trust of India (25 January 2010). "Hindi, not a national language: Court"The Hindu. Ahmedabad. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. Jump up to:a b "C −1 Population by religious community – 2011". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision" (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)"2011 Census Data. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  15. ^ "A – 2 Decadal Variation in Population Since 1901" (PDF). 2011 Census Data. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  16. Jump up to:a b c d e f "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019"IMF.orgInternational Monetary Fund. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  17. ^ "Income Gini coefficient"United Nations Development ProgramArchived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  18. ^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  19. ^ –The Essential Desk Reference, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 76, ISBN 978-0-19-512873-4 "Official name: Republic of India.";
    –John Da Graça (2017), Heads of State and Government, London: Macmillian, pp. 421–, ISBN 978-1-349-65771-1 "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)";
    –Graham Rhind (2017), Global Sourcebook of Address Data Management: A Guide to Address Formats and Data in 194 Countries, Taylor & Francis, pp. 302–, ISBN 978-1-351-93326-1 "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat.";
    –Bradnock, Robert W. (2015), The Routledge Atlas of South Asian Affairs, Routledge, pp. 108–, ISBN 978-1-317-40511-5 "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya";
    Penguin Compact Atlas of the World, Penguin, 2012, pp. 140–, ISBN 978-0-7566-9859-1 "Official name: Republic of India";
    Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Merriam-Webster, 1997, pp. 515–516, ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9 "Officially, Republic of India";
    Complete Atlas of the World, 3rd Edition: The Definitive View of the Earth, DK Publishing, 2016, pp. 54–, ISBN 978-1-4654-5528-4 "Official name: Republic of India";
    Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations 2013, CQ Press, 10 May 2013, pp. 726–, ISBN 978-1-4522-9937-2 "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)"
  20. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 1, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (22 May 2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1.; (c) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 23, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  21. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  22. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 4–5, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 33, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  23. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 14–15, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Robb, Peter (2011), A History of India, Macmillan, pp. 46–, ISBN 978-0-230-34549-2; (c) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, p. 19, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6
  24. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 25, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b)Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  25. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  26. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  27. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 16–17, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 67–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2; (c) Robb, Peter (2011), A History of India, Macmillan, pp. 56–57, ISBN 978-0-230-34549-2; (d) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, pp. 29–30, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6
  28. ^ (a) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, pp. 28–29, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6; (b) Glenn Van Brummelen (2014), "Arithmetic", in Thomas F. Glick; Steven Livesey; Faith Wallis (eds.), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, pp. 46–48, ISBN 978-1-135-45932-1
  29. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 20, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 90–, ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1; (c) Ramusack, Barbara N. (1999), "Women in South Asia", in Barbara N. Ramusack, Sharon L. Sievers (ed.), Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History, Indiana University Press, pp. 27–29, ISBN 0-253-21267-7
  30. Jump up to:a b Kulke & Rothermund 2004, pp. 93.
  31. ^ Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 17, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7
  32. ^ (a) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, p. 54, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6; (b) Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 78–79, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7; (c) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 76–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  33. ^ (a) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, pp. 68–70, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6; (b) Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 19, 24, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7
  34. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (20 September 2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 48–, ISBN 978-0-19-256430-6; (b) Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7
  35. ^ Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 74, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7"
  36. ^ Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 267, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7
  37. ^ Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 152, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7
  38. Jump up to:a b Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 106–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  39. ^ (a) Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 289, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7; (b) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  40. ^ Taylor, Miles (2016), "The British royal family and the colonial empire from the Georgians to Prince George", in Aldrish, Robert; McCreery, Cindy (eds.), Crowns and Colonies: European Monarchies and Overseas Empires, Manchester University Press, pp. 38–39, ISBN 978-1-5261-0088-7; (b) Peers, Douglas M. (2013), India Under Colonial Rule: 1700–1885, Routledge, p. 76, ISBN 978-1-317-88286-2
  41. ^ Embree, Ainslie Thomas; Hay, Stephen N.; Bary, William Theodore De (1988), "Nationalism Takes Root: The Moderates"Sources of Indian Tradition: Modern India and Pakistan, Columbia University Press, p. 85, ISBN 978-0-231-06414-9
  42. ^ Marshall, P. J. (2001), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 179, ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7
  43. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 219, 262, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  44. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 8–, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  45. ^ Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012), A Concise History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press, pp. 265–266, ISBN 978-1-107-02649-0
  46. ^ Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012), A Concise History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press, p. 266, ISBN 978-1-107-02649-0
  47. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 216, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  48. ^ (a) "Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent"Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019, Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947.;
    (b) Pletcher, Kenneth, "Aksai Chin, Plateau Region, Asia"Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 16 August 2019, Aksai Chin, Chinese (Pinyin) Aksayqin, portion of the Kashmir region, ... constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India; 
    (c) C. E Bosworth (2006), "Kashmir"Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6, KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partly by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947
  49. ^ Narayan, Jitendra; John, Denny; Ramadas, Nirupama (2018). "Malnutrition in India: status and government initiatives". Journal of Public Health Policy40 (1): 126–141. doi:10.1057/s41271-018-0149-5ISSN 0197-5897.
  50. ^ Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Dey, Sagnik; et al. (2019). "The impact of air pollution on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017". The Lancet Planetary Health3 (1): e26–e39. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30261-4ISSN 2542-5196.
  51. Jump up to:a b India, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 2019
  52. ^ Jha, Raghbendra (2018), Facets of India's Economy and Her Society Volume II: Current State and Future Prospects, Springer, pp. 198–, ISBN 978-1-349-95342-4
  53. ^ Karanth, K. Ullas; Gopal, Rajesh (2005), "An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India", in Rosie Woodroffe; Simon Thirgood; Alan Rabinowitz (eds.), People and Wildlife, Conflict Or Co-existence?, Cambridge University Press, pp. 374–, ISBN 978-0-521-53203-7
  54. ^ India (noun), Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edition, 2009 (subscription required)
  55. ^ Thieme, P. (1970), "Sanskrit sindu-/Sindhu- and Old Iranian hindu-/Hindu-", in Mary Boyce; Ilya Gershevitch (eds.), W. B. Henning memorial volume, Lund Humphries, pp. 447–450
  56. Jump up to:a b Kuiper 2010, p. 86.
  57. Jump up to:a b c Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine (2014). "'India, that is Bharat…': One Country, Two Names"South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal10Archived from the original on 28 September 2015.
  58. ^ Ministry of Law and Justice 2008.
  59. ^ Jha, Dwijendra Narayan (2014), Rethinking Hindu Identity, Routledge, p. 11, ISBN 978-1-317-49034-0
  60. ^ Singh, Upinder (2017), Political Violence in Ancient India, Harvard University Press, p. 253, ISBN 978-0-674-98128-7
  61. Jump up to:a b Barrow, Ian J. (2003). "From Hindustan to India: Naming change in changing names". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies26 (1): 37–49. doi:10.1080/085640032000063977.
  62. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  63. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 1, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8 Quote: "Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent. It seems likely that initially they came by way of the coast. ... it is virtually certain that there were Homo sapiens in the subcontinent 55,000 years ago, even though the earliest fossils that have been found of them date to only about 30,000 years before the present. (page 1)"
  64. ^ Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (22 May 2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by modern humans originating in Africa. ... Coalescence dates for most non-European populations average to between 73–55 ka."
  65. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 23, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2Quote: "Scholars estimate that the first successful expansion of the Homo sapiens range beyond Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula occurred from as early as 80,000 years ago to as late as 40,000 years ago, although there may have been prior unsuccessful emigrations. Some of their descendants extended the human range ever further in each generation, spreading into each habitable land they encountered. One human channel was along the warm and productive coastal lands of the Persian Gulf and northern Indian Ocean. Eventually, various bands entered India between 75,000 years ago and 35,000 years ago (page 23)"
  66. ^ Petraglia, Allchin & 2007, p. 6.
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  68. Jump up to:a b Coningham & Young 2015, pp. 104–105.
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  93. Jump up to:a b c Singh 2009, p. 545.
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  95. Jump up to:a b Stein 1998, p. 132.
  96. Jump up to:a b c Stein 1998, pp. 119–120.
  97. Jump up to:a b Stein 1998, pp. 121–122.
  98. Jump up to:a b Stein 1998, p. 123.
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  106. Jump up to:a b Asher & Talbot 2008, p. 53.
  107. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 12.
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  112. Jump up to:a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 17.
  113. Jump up to:a b c Asher & Talbot 2008, p. 152.
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  117. Jump up to:a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 23–24.
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  119. Jump up to:a b c Asher & Talbot 2008, p. 286.
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  141. Jump up to:a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 126.
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  148. Jump up to:a b c Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 265–266.
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  153. Jump up to:a b Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 247–248.
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  156. Jump up to:a b c d Ali & Aitchison 2005.
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  163. Jump up to:a b Kumar et al. 2006.
  164. ^ Mcgrail, Sean; Blue, Lucy; Kentley, Eric (2003), Boats of South Asia, Routledge, p. 257, ISBN 978-1-134-43130-4
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  166. ^ Duff 1993, p. 353.
  167. ^ Basu, Mahua; SJ, Xavier Savarimuthu (2017), Fundamentals of Environmental Studies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 78–, ISBN 978-1-316-87051-8
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  172. Jump up to:a b Chang 1967, pp. 391–394.
  173. ^ Posey 1994, p. 118.
  174. ^ Wolpert 2003, p. 4.
  175. ^ Heitzman & Worden 1996, p. 97.
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  177. ^ Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group". Cat News (Special Issue 11): 66–68.
  178. ^ Megadiverse Countries, Biodiversity A–Z and UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre
  179. ^ Zoological Survey of India 2012, p. 1.
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  181. ^ Basak 1983, p. 24.
  182. Jump up to:a b Venkataraman, K.; Sivaperuman, C. (2018), "Biodiversity Hotspots in India", in Sivaperuman, C.; Venkataraman, K. (eds.), Indian Hotspots: Vertebrate Faunal Diversity, Conservation and Management, Springer, p. 5, ISBN 978-981-10-6605-4
  183. Jump up to:a b c d Jha, Raghbendra (2018), Facets of India's Economy and Her Society Volume II: Current State and Future Prospects, Springer, pp. 198–, ISBN 978-1-349-95342-4
  184. Jump up to:a b c d Tritsch 2001.
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  186. ^ Hughes, Julie E. (2013), Animal Kingdoms, Harvard University Press, pp. 106–, ISBN 978-0-674-07480-4, At same time, the leafy pipal trees and comparative abundance that marked the Mewari landscape fostered refinements unattainable in other lands.
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  188. ^ Paul Gwynne (2011), World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, p. 358, ISBN 978-1-4443-6005-9 Quote: "The tree under which Sakyamuni became the Buddha is a peepal tree (Ficus religiosa). page 358"
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  193. Jump up to:a b S.D. Biju; Sushil Dutta; M.S. Ravichandran Karthikeyan Vasudevan; S.P. Vijayakumar; Chelmala Srinivasulu; Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe (2004). "Duttaphrynus beddomii". The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesIUCN2004: e.T54584A86543952. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54584A11155448.en.
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  195. Jump up to:a b Lovette, Irby J.; Fitzpatrick, John W. (2016), Handbook of Bird Biology, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 599–, ISBN 978-1-118-29105-4
  196. ^ Mace 1994, p. 4.
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  202. ^ United Nations Population Division.
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  209. ^ Sarkar 2007, p. 84.
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  212. ^ "Narasimha Rao Passes Away"The Hindu. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
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SHARE India-icon Republic of Indiaball India-icon (turban) भारत गणराज्य ← British Raj-icon 15 August 1947 - Present

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Enemies Pakistan-icon Pakistanball will annex that kebab Argentina-icon Argentinaball Somalia-icon Somaliaball ISIS-icon ISISball Gypsy-icon Gypsyball Niger-icon Flag Stealer Miami-icon Another Flag Stealer! JustinTrudeau-icon Justin Trudeau North Korea-icon North Koreaball Indiana-icon NAMESTEALER! Sweden-icon Swedenball

Turkey-icon Turkeyball (sometimes) Why yuo support Pakistan in Kashmir? Is my clay!

Likes Food, Nukes, Hinduism, Kama Sutra, Monies, religious tolerance, weapons, Yoga, Chai, Turmeric, Coffee, Spices, trading, Satellites, tourism, going to mars (then invasion) , Automobile industry, computers, samosas, T-Series, Pewdiepie helping out Indian children, T Series surpassing PewDiePie, PUBG Mobile. Tata, Mahindra, TVS, Bajaj, Hero, Tik Tok, Smartphones, Facebook, XXXTENTACION Dislikes Pakistan, Net Neutrality, pollution, corruption, poverty, Triple Talaq, Rohingyas, Religious Conversation, western media, traffic signals, bitch lasagna pewdiepie, being confused with Native Americans (Amerindians) Historical information Preceded by British Raj-icon British Rajball Is of importants Can into space? Yes. Scared NASA half to death with his rocket. Börk oye oye, dadhak dadhak, tech tech Food Curry, Biryani, Dosa, Tandoori chicken, Samoosa, Chicken Tikka Masala, Malai Kofta, Chole, Palak Paneer, Kaali Daal, Murg Makhani, Rogan Josh, Malai Kofta, Masala Chai. Multiple cuisines from the different Indian regions, bitch lasagna Status Launching satellites, lots of. Preparing to go to the moon, again. Notes Is expected to beat China in people soon in the future. “ *Autotuned but overused screaming voice* ”

— Every Bollywood Singer “ Hello this is Stewart from tech support ”

— An Indian Scammer “ Time to conquer all of India... Most of India. ”

— Chandragupta Maruya Indiaball, officially the Republic of Indiaball is a sovereign state and federal republic in South Asia.

Indiaball is the 7th largest country in the world with a total area is 1.269 million square miles. It is the largest country in South Asia. His clay is bordered by China-icon Chinaball, Nepal-icon NepalRawr, and Bhutan-icon Bhutanball to the North, Bangladesh-icon Bangladeshball and Myanmar-icon Myanmarball to the East, and Pakistan-icon Pakistanball to the West. The country is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories, including his capital New Delhi-icon Delhiball. There are over 1.324 billion people in Indiaball which makes it the 2nd most populous country besides China-icon Chinaball. It is the 12th most popular human migration destination after Ukraine-icon Ukraineball. Indiaball has many different cultures and ethnic groups that live together. It has a very rich cuisine. Most people are religious. 79.8% of the population practices Hinduism-icon Hinduball. Cows are sacred for Hindus and they believe in reincarnation. India is the second largest English speaking country. It has 125 million English speakers, mainly as a second language.

India is a member of BRICS-icon BRICS, G20, the Commonwealth, SCO-icon SCO and a founding member of SAARC-icon SAARC.

India has one of the fastest growing economies and the third largest GDP/PPP. However, it has major domestic problems such as much poverty, corruption, pollution and crime. The judicial system is slow with prosecuting offenders or they get bribed. There is also major discrimination due to the remant caste system. It puts people in different castes based on ethnicity, ancestry etc. This has caused semi-stratification of society.

Indiaball is the dominant power of South Asia and a major player in Asia. He has the 5th strongest military. Maybe one day he will become a superpower and remove kebab yay.

The most important national day is Indian Independence Day on August 15. It commemorates Indiaball's independence from his adoptive father UK-icon UKball on 15 August 1947.

Contents[hide] History Ancient Mauryan Empire Classical Period British Raj Indian Rebellion of 1857 Entry of M.K Gandhi War of 1947 61 Goa liberation Sino-Indian War of 1962 Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 Nathu La and Cho La incidents Bangladesh Liberation Anschluss of Siachen Kargil China–India border standoff Personality States and Territories States Union territories Flag Colors Main Colors Quotes Relationships दोस्त (Friends) उलझा हुआ (Complicated) दुश्मनों (Enemies) Gallery Artwork Comics HistoryEdit AncientEdit Indiaball was born as a 2-icon 2ball along with his brother who will be his Pakistan-icon flithy shit kebab neighbour in future and more distantly Iran-iconIranball . They both became Indus Valleyball where its ancestry comes from. The archeological sites have an inscription of the Rig Veda, dating to at least 3500 BC, which clearly shows that Hinduism-icon Hinduball was the religion. Much of the IVC remains a mystery because Indus script has not yet been deciphered (and probably never will be).

The decline of the IVC is subject to debate. Some Archeologists suggest that the river Saraswati dried/shifted resulting many of the cities being abandoned, while some suggested that the trade with Mesopotamia stopped due to some reason. According to some other archeologists, the ruins of Harrapa, Mohan-Jo-Daro, Rakhigarhi (probably the capital) appear to have been annihilated in a single day, because the skeleton discovered suggest that the people were carrying out the daily activities when something killed them all in a single instant, which sounds like 6balls were involved. All Indic civilizations had well-developed drainage systems and knew basic metal working. Their city planning was better compared to that of other ancient civilisations.

Mauryan EmpireEdit The Mauryaball was the first major empire on India's clay. The empire was known for its gigantic army of 10K war elephants and for its wealth. Under Ashoka's rule, the empire stretched from most of the Indian subcontinent to Indochina, Afghanistan and Tibet.

Classical PeriodEdit After the death of Mauryaball other empires took power and made their own contribution to shape Indiaclay.

The Gupta Empire - (4th–6th century) is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Hinduism, although a host of kingdoms ruled over Indiaclay in these centuries. Also, the Sangam literature flourished from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD in southern Indiaclay. During this period, the economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth, from 1 AD to 1000 AD.

The Shunga Empire - was the ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BC. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. It's capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar, modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa. Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. The empire is noted for it's numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought battles with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mitras. Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the Stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.

The Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language. The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronising Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. This helped the empire flourish and gain power.

The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, and Gurjara Pratihara Empire. Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notable being the Chalukya, Chola, Pallav, Chera, Pandyan, and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bengal in the 11th century. The early medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced.

Muslim rule started in parts of north India in the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks; though earlier Kebab conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the 8th century. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the major part of northern India in the early 14th century but declined in the late 14th century. During this period, continued Hindu resistance led to the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara, Gajapati, Ahom, as well as Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism. The early modern period began in the 16th century when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and the Mysore Kingdom to exercise control over large areas of the subcontinent.

British RajEdit During the post-medieval era, powers from Europe came as traders but started the divide and rule strategy to defeat the powerful princely states and slowly started to conquer these lands, creating colonial subjects. UK-icon UKball conquered the whole Indian-subcontinent including Pakistan, Afghanistan and Burma. This became the British Raj-icon British Rajball. So it was UK-icon UKball that united Indiaball otherwise it would still be fragmented with many different kingdoms and Princely States. British Raj-icon British Rajball was the most important colonial territory of the global spanning British Empire-icon British Empire.

Indiaball was till rather underdeveloped compared to the European Imperial countries. UK-icon UKball brought new technology and innovations from Europe to Indiaball. Since he was part of the British Empire-icon British Empire, that caused Indiaball to be involved in regional and global conflicts. Such as World War I and World War II.

After nearly 110 years, the British Empire-icon British Empire had proven to be an irresponsible and abusive parent. Indian farmers were forced to grow indigo on their land, which was really harmful for the soil, and were paid very little for the produce. The taxes charged by the British were of disproportionate amount and were u