This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
Republic of India Bhārat Gaṇarājya
|Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
|Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
|Recognised regional languages|
|Membership||UN, WTO, BRICS, SAARC, SCO, G8+5, G20, Commonwealth of Nations|
|Ram Nath Kovind|
from the United Kingdom
|15 August 1947|
|26 January 1950|
|3,287,263 km2(1,269,219 sq mi)[c](7th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|402.8/km2(1,043.2/sq mi) (31st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
medium · 79th
|HDI (2017)|| 0.640
medium · 130th
|Currency||Indian rupee (₹) (INR)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|DST is not observed|
|ISO 3166 code||IN|
|Internet TLD||.in (others)|
India (official name: the Republic of India; Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus valley civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Vedas, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta empires based in the Ganges basin, their collective era suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organized system of belief.[e] In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.
In the early medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.Armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's plains, eventually establishing the Delhi sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam. In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India. In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalized religion. The Mughal empire, in 1525, ushered in two centuries of relative peace, leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.[f] Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root. A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and led India to its independence in 1947.
India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1 billion 211 million in 2011. During the same time, its nominal per capita income, increased from $64 annually to $2,041, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951, India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space program which includes several planned or completed lunar missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality. India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbors, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century. Among the socioeconomic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition, and rising levels of air pollution. India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.
- 5Politics and government
- 6Foreign, economic and strategic relations
- 8Demographics, languages, and religion
- 10See also
- 14External links
According to the Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition 2009), the name India is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference toSouth Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient GreekIndos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," but especially the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".
The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] (listen)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India, is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley, Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.
Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] (listen)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.
(top) A pre-14th century manuscript of the Rigveda, orally composed and transmitted from 1500 BCE to 1200 BCE (bottom) The "Battle at Lanka," a scene from the Sanskrit epic Ramayana—composed between 700 BCE and 200 CE—was illustrated by Sahibdin, an artist of the 17th century.
By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens., had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved.  The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.
During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Ageones. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions. File:
Clockwise from upper left: (a) A map of the rough extent of the empire of Ashoka, ca 250 BCE; (b) The Dhamek Stupaat Sarnath, 249 BCE, the site of the Buddha's first sermon two centuries earlier; (c) The map of India, ca 350 CE; (d) Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves, fifth century CE
In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas. The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India. In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal, and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.
The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculptureand architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.
The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.
In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java. Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.
After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migrationof fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north. The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India, and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.
Early modern IndiaEdit
In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.
Clockwise from top left: (a) India under BritishEast India Company rule in 1795; (b) India in 1848; (c) A two mohur gold coin issued by the Company in 1835 with the bust of William IV, Kingon the obverse, and the face value in English and Persian, on the reverse
By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively having been made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.
Main article: History of the Republic of India
Clockwise from upper left: (a) 1909 Map of the British Indian Empire; (b) Railway network of India in 1909, fourth largest in the world; (c) New Delhi became the capital of India in 1911, and was inaugurated in 1931.
Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped the nascent Indian-owned industry.
After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.
Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies, and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban; by religious and caste-related violence; by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies; and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China and with Pakistan.The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.
Main article: Geography of India
The average onset dates and wind directions during India's southwest summer monsoon.
India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate.India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.Simultaneously, the vast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate. These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crusteventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.
The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats; the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude[g] and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude.
India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.
Flowing near Hampi is the Tungabhadra river, the major right bank tributary of the Krishna river, a peninsular river, which empties into the Bay of Bengal. The coracles, made of wicker, are traditionally covered with hide, their circular shape preventing them from overturning in rivers with rocky outcrops.
Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes. Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea. Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.
The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.
A 1909 map showing India's forests, bush and small wood, cultivated lands, steppe, and desert.
A 2010 map shows India's forest cover averaged out for each state.
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, their numbers having increased to nearly 3,000 in 2019,but human-tiger conflict in India has also increased. The Bengal tiger is one of the IUCN-designated endangered animals.Shown here is Maya, a Bengal tigress of the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra.
India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for countries, numbering 17, that display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them. India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptilespecies, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species. Fully third of Indian plant species are endemic. India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots, or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.[h]
India's forest cover is 701,673 km2 (270,917 sq mi), which is 21.35% of the country's total land area, can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy.  Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 2.61% of India's land area. It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India. Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.59% of India's land area, and predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India. Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.14% of India's land area, and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan plateau and the western Gangetic plain.
Among the notable trees that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine, and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul, which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro, and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment,
Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago. India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographicalpasses flanking the Himalaya. This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians. Notable endemics are the vulnerable Hooded leaf monkey and the threatened Beddom's toad of the Western Ghats.
Indian vultures, (Gyps indicus), in a nest on the tower of the Chaturbhuj Temple, Orchha, Madhya Pradesh. The vulture became nearly extinct in India in the 1990s from having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-laced cattle.
India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin and the critically endangered: Gharial, a crocodilian; the Great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988. India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuariesand thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.
Politics and governmentEdit
Main article: Politics of India
Social movements have long been a part of democracy in India. The picture shows a section of 25,000 landless people in the state of Madhya Pradeshlistening to Rajagopal P. V. before their 350 km march, Janadesh 2007, from Gwalior to New Delhi to publicize their demand for further land reform in India.
India is the world's most populous Democracy . A Parliamentary Republic with a multi-party system, it has seven recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture, and the BJP right-wing. For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.
In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.
US president Barack Obama at the Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing members of parliament of both houses, the lower, Lok Sabha, and the upper, Rajya Sabha, in a joint session, 8 November 2010.
A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term. In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties. That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term. In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties. The incumbent Indian prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.
The official home of the President of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan, was designed between 1911 and 1931 by British architects, Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker for the Viceroy of Indiaduring the British Raj.
India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union, or central, government and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, originally stated India to be a "sovereign, democratic republic;" this characterization was amended in 1971 to "a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states, has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.
|Emblem||Sarnath Lion Capital|
|Anthem||Jana Gana Mana|
|Currency||₹ (Indian rupee)|
River dolphin (aquatic)
- Executive: The President of India is the ceremonial head of state, who is elected indirectly for a five-year term by an electoral collegecomprising members of national and state legislatures. The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliancehaving a majority of seats in the lower house of parliament. The executive of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice president, and the Union Council of Ministers—with the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his or her council are directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament. The civil servants act as permanent executives and all decisions of the executive are implemented by them. 
- Legislature: The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. Operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system, it comprises an upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and a lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body of 245 members who serve staggered six-year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and union territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population.All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent single-member constituencies for five-year terms. The remaining two members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented.
- Judiciary: India has a three-tier unitary independent judiciary comprising the supreme court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 24 high courts, and a large number of trial courts. The supreme court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the centre and has appellate jurisdiction over the high courts. It has the power to both strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution, and invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.
Main article: Administrative divisions of India
See also: Political integration of India
A clickable map of the 28 states and 9 union territories of India
|1. Andhra Pradesh||20. Punjab|
|2. Arunachal Pradesh||21. Rajasthan|
|3. Assam||22. Sikkim|
|4. Bihar||23. Tamil Nadu|
|5. Chhattisgarh||24. Telangana|
|6. Goa||25. Tripura|
|7. Gujarat||26. Uttar Pradesh|
|8. Haryana||27. Uttarakhand|
|9. Himachal Pradesh||28. West Bengal|
|10. Jharkhand||A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|11. Karnataka||B. Chandigarh|
|12. Kerala||C. Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|13. Madhya Pradesh||D. Daman and Diu|
|14. Maharashtra||E. Jammu and Kashmir|
|15. Manipur||F. Ladakh|
|16. Meghalaya||G. Lakshadweep|
|17. Mizoram||H. National Capital Territory of Delhi|
|18. Nagaland||I. Puducherry|
India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 9 union territories. All states, as well in addition to the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following on the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.
Foreign, economic and strategic relationsEdit
During the 1950s and 60s, India played a pivotal role in the Non-aligned movement. Shown here are from left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Republic (now Egypt), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru of India, at the Conference for Non-Aligned Nations, in Belgrade, September 1961.
In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement.After initially cordial relations with neighboring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war , followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh. In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.
Aside from ongoing special relationship with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums. India has close economic ties with South America, Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.
The Indian Air Force contingent marching at the 221st Bastille Day military parade in Paris, on July 14, 2009. The parade at which India was the foreign guest was led by the India's oldest regiment, the Maratha Light Infantry, founded in 1768. France, with which India signed a strategic partnership in 1998, is now India's third-largest supplier of military equipment.
China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine. It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet.Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.
Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union. In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard. The official Indian defence budgetfor 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP. For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion. In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%, although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government. As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases. Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean. In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries. In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over Rs 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.
Main article: Economy of India
Clockwise from top: (a) A farmer in northwesternKarnataka ploughs his field with a tractor even as another in a field beyond does the same with a pair of oxen In 2018, 44% of India's total workforce was employed in agriculture. (b) Women tend to a recently planted rice field in Junagadh district in Gujarat. 57% of India's female workforce was employed in agriculture in 2018. (c) India is the world's largest producer of milk, with the largest population of cattle. In 2018, nearly 80% of India's milk was sourced from small farms with herd size between one and two, the milk harvested by hand milking.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2017 was nominally worth US$2.611 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$9.459 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity, or PPP. With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–12,India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP. Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy; since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.
The 513.7-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2016. The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985. In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%; In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter. Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures. Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%. India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in the calendar year 2013.
Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007, India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030. Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, as of 2010. With 7 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, as of 2009. India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030. However, hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes.
Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020; however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.
A panorama of Bangalore, the center of India's software development economy. In the 1980s, when the first multinational corporations began to set up centers in India, they chose Bangalore because of the large pool of skilled graduates in the area, in turn due to the many science and engineering colleges in the surrounding region.
According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045. During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050. The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class. The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.
According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).
A vegetable retailer in the state of Tamil Nadu. Almost all the retail industry in India, which accounts for 10% of India's GDP, and 8% of its employment, belongs to the unorganized sector of individual and family-owned businesses.
India's telecommunication industry, the world's fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 2010–11, and after the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.
The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10, and exports by 36% during 2008–09. India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable. At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.
The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceuticalindustry. India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world. The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion INR (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion INR (3.94 B US$ – exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR).
Female health workers about to begin another day of immunization against infectious diseases in 2006. Eight years later, and three years after India's last case of polio, the World Health Organization on 11 February 2014 declared India to be polio-free.
Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005; under its later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.[i] 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight. According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished. The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.
According to a Walk Free Foundation report in 2016, there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million child labourers in 2001.
Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest. Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.
Demographics, languages, and religionEdit
India by population density, religion, language
The population density of India by natural divisions, based on the Indian census of 1901
Population density of India by each state, based on the Indian census of 2011.
The prevailing religions of South Asia based on district-wise majorities in the 1901 census
The language families of South Asia
With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report, India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% during 2001–2011, compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001). The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males. The median age was 27.6 as of 2016. The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people. Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly. India continues to face several public health-related challenges.
Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3. There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians. Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in the recent history of India. The number of Indians living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001. Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas. The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991. According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population. The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males. The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas. Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Biharthe least with 63.82%.
A Hindu ascetic in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh has the highest numbers of both Hindus and Muslims among all states.The population by religion in 2011 was Hindus 79.73%, Muslims 19.26%, others 1.01%.
India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language"; it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".
The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam(14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others[j] (0.9%). India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.
Main article: Culture of India
Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic period (c. 1700 – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established. India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainismamong the nation's major religions. The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement, and by Buddhist philosophy.
Art, architecture and literatureEdit
Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan, explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings; it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs. As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute". The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.
The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language. Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE–1200 BCE), the epics:Mahābhārata (c. 400 BCE–400 CE) and the Ramayana (c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa (c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry. In Tamil literature, Sangam Literature (c 600 BCE–300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Performing arts, and mediaEdit
The Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's national academy of performance arts, has recognized eight Indian dance styles to be classical. One such is Kuchipudi shown here. The others are: (a) Bharatanatyam; (b) Kathak ; (c) Kathakali; (d) Manipuri; (e) Odissi; (f) Sattriya; and (g) Mohiniyattam.
Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakaliand mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam. Theatre in Indiamelds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka. India has a theatre training institute NSD that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
Sarod performance at the Musée Guimet, Paris
The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages. South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of national film revenue.
Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades. The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite and/or cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).
Main article: Culture of India
Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes". India declared untouchability to be illegal in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance.
Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other elders in the family. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low. As of 2001, just 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced, but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age. Female infanticide and female foeticide in the country have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, as of 2005 it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation.However, a report from 2011 has shown improvement in the gender ratio. The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines. Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.
Main article: Clothing in India
The most widely worn traditional dress in India, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped. For women it eventually took the form of a sari, a single long piece of cloth, famously six yards long, and of width spanning the lower body. The sari is tied around the waist and knotted at one end, wrapped around the lower body, and then over the shoulder. In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil. It has been combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, in the waist band of which it is now tucked for more secure fastening. It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end, passing over the shoulder, now serving to obscure the upper body's contours, and to cover the midriff.
For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment. It too is tied around the waist and wrapped. In south India, it is usually wrapped around the lower body, the upper end tucked in the waistband, the lower left free. In northern India, it is in addition also wrapped once around each leg, before being brought up through the legs to be tucked in at the back. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the chadar (a shawl worn by both sexes for covering the upper body during colder weather, or a large veil worn by women for framing the head, or covering it) and the pagri (a turban, or a scarf worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold).
From top left to bottom right (a) Women (from l. to r)churidars and kameez, with back to the camera; in jeans and sweater; in pink Shalwar kameez shopping; (b) A boy in kurta with chikan embroidery; (c) Girls in the Kashmirregion in embroidered hijab; (d) A tailor in pagri andkameez working outside a fabric shop.
Until the beginning of the first millennium CE the ordinary dress of people in India was entirely unstitched. The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asia, circa 48 CE, popularized garments in the style of Central Asian cut and sewn ones among the elite in northern India. However, it was not until Muslim rule was established, first with the Delhi sultanate and then the Mughal Empire, that the range of stitched clothes became wider in India and their use significantly widespread. Among the various garments gradually establishing themselves in northern India during medieval and early-modern times, and now commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas both forms of trousers, as well as the tunics kurta and kameez. In southern India, however, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.
Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring or elastic belt, which causes them to become pleated around the waist. The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The side seams are left open below the waist-line,), which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The kameez may have a European-style collar, a Mandarin-collar, or it may be collarless; in the latter case, its design as a women's garment is similar to a kurta. At first worn by Muslim women, the use of Shalwar kameez gradually spread, making them a regional style,especially in the Punjab region. 
A kurta, which traces its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, has evolved stylistically in India as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions. It is traditionally made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and it can be loose or tight in the torso, typically falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer.The sleeves of a traditional kurta fall to the wrist without narrowing, the ends hemmed but not cuffed; the kurta can be worn by both men and women; it is traditionally collarless, though standing collars are increasingly popular; and it can be worn over ordinary pajamas, loose shalwars, churidars, or less traditionally over jeans.
In the last 50 years, fashions have changed much in India. Increasingly, in urban settings in northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions. The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger women, who favor churidars or jeans. The kurtas worn by young men usually fall to the shins and are seldom plain. In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round. For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars. The dhoti, the once universal garment of Hindu India, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven form of khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions, is seldom seen in the cities, reduced now, with brocaded border, to the liturgical vestments of Hindu priests.
Main article: Indian cuisine
Top l. to bottom r. (a) South Indian vegetarian thali, or platter; (b) an Assamese thali (c) Chicken biryani from Hyderabad, (d) Pork vindaloo from Goa, (e) Home-cooked lunch delivered to the office by the tiffin wallah; (e) Railway mutton curry from Odisha;
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Indian foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu, cultural choices and traditions.They have been also shaped by Islamic rule, particularly that of the Mughals, by the arrival of the Portuguese on India's southwestern shores, and by British rule, the influences of the three reflected, respectively, in the dishes of pilaf and biryani; the vindaloo; and the tiffin and the Railway mutton curry. Earlier, the Columbian exchange had brought to India, the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, all becoming staples of use. In turn, the spice trade between India and Europe was a catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.
The cereals grown in India, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of India's monsoons, and the variation across regions in the associated rainfall. In general, the broad division of cereal zones in India, as determined by their dependence on rain, was firmly in place before the arrival of artificial irrigation. Rice, which requires a lot of water, has been traditionally grown in the regions of high rainfall in the northeast and the western coast, wheat in the regions of moderate rainfall, such as India's northern plains, and millet in the regions of low rainfall, such as on the Deccan plateau andRajasthan.
The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavorful savory dishes.These latter include lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions. In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavorful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables.
A notable feature of Indian food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents. The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of India's Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, and the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains. Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat, and contributes to the low proportional consumption of meat to overall diet in India. Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption accompanying higher economic growth.
In the last millennium, the most significant import of cooking techniques into India occurred during the Mughal Empire. The cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from India to Central and West Asia; however, it was during Mughal rule that dishes, such as the pilaf, developed in the interim during the Abbasid caliphate, and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest. To the simple yogurt marinade of Persia, onions, garlic, almonds, and spices began to be added in India. Rice grown to the southwest of the Mughal capital, Agra, which had become famous in the Islamic world for its fine grain, was partially cooked and layered alternately with the sauteed meat, the pot sealed tightly, and slow cooked according to another Persian cooking technique, to produce what has today become the Indian biryani, a feature of festive dining in many parts of India.
In food served in restaurants in urban north India, and internationally, the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine, caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab region who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India, and had arrived in India as refugees. The identification of Indian cuisine with the tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to this period.
Sports and recreationEdit
Main article: Sport in India
During a twenty four-year career, Sachin Tendulkar has set many batting records in cricket. The picture shows him about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing Australia in Bangalore on 10 October, 2010
In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwaniand gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.
The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing, and wrestling. Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.
Cricket is the most popular sport in India. Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.
India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014. India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.
- ^ "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
- ^ According to Part XVII of the Constitution of India, Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Union, along with English as an additional official language.States and union territories can have a different official language of their own other than Hindi or English.
- ^ "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).
- ^ The Government of India also regards Afghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: "Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- ^ " The Chinese pilgrim also recorded evidence of the caste system as he could observe it. According to this evidence the treatment meted out to untouchables such as the Chandalas was very similar to that which they experienced in later periods. This would contradict assertions that this rigid form of the caste system emerged in India only as a reaction to the Islamic conquest.
- ^ "Shah Jahan eventually sent her body 800 km (500 mi) to Agra for burial in the Rauza-i Munauwara (“Illuminated Tomb”) – a personal tribute and a stone manifestation of his imperial power. This tomb has been celebrated globally as the Taj Mahal."
- ^ The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6' to its northernmost point.
- ^ A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographical region which has more than 1,500 vascular plant species, but less than 30% of its primary habitat.
- ^ In 2015, the World Bank raised its international poverty line to $1.90 per day.
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- Raghavan, S. (23 October 2006), Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings (2nd ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-8493-2842-8
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- Ramanujan, A. K. (translator) (15 October 1985), Poems of Love and War: From the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. ix–x, ISBN 978-0-231-05107-1
- Rawat, Ramnarayan S (23 March 2011), Reconsidering Untouchability: Chamars and Dalit History in North India, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-22262-6
- Anand Crowned World Champion, Rediff, 29 October 2008, retrieved 29 October 2008
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POPULAR PAGES COMMUNITY EXPLORE MAIN PAGE in: Countryball navboxes, Countryballs, Asia, and 31 more Indiaball English EDIT
SHARE India-icon Republic of Indiaball India-icon (turban) भारत गणराज्य ← British Raj-icon 15 August 1947 - Present
Jai Hind. General information Government President-icon Federal Republic Personality Caring, Wise, Powerful, Friendly, Religious, Fanatic, Traditionalist, Corrupt, Bit dirty, Short-tempered, Multicultural Language English-icon English India-icon (hat) Hindi India-icon (hat) Tamil India-icon Other Indian languages Type Gupta-icon Indic Indus Valley-icon Dravidian Capital India-icon (division) New Delhiball Affiliation BRICS-icon BRICSbrick English-icon Commonwealthball SAARC-icon SAARCball SCO-icon SCOball UN-icon UNball Religion Hinduism-icon Hinduism Islam-icon Islam
Relations and opinions Friends Russia-icon Russiaball Israel-icon Israelcube (sometimes) UK-icon UKball (sometimes) USA-icon USAball Donald Trump-icon Donald Trump Malaysia-icon Malaysiaball Brazil-icon Brazilball Trinidad and Tobago-icon Trinidad and Tobagoball Sweden-icon Swedenball (sometimes) UAE-icon UAEball Indonesia-icon Indonesiaball Japan-icon Japanball South Korea-icon South Koreaball Iran-icon Iranball Canada-icon Canadaball Nepal-icon NepalRawr Bhutan-icon Bhutanball Bangladesh-icon Bangladeshball South Africa-icon South Africaball (mostly) Afghan-icon Afghanistanball (sometimes) Tajik-icon Tajikistanball Greece-icon Greeceball Portugal-icon Portugalball
Soviet-icon Soviet Unionball
Enemies Pakistan-icon Pakistanball will annex that kebab Argentina-icon Argentinaball Somalia-icon Somaliaball ISIS-icon ISISball Gypsy-icon Gypsyball Niger-icon Flag Stealer Miami-icon Another Flag Stealer! JustinTrudeau-icon Justin Trudeau North Korea-icon North Koreaball Indiana-icon NAMESTEALER! Sweden-icon Swedenball
Turkey-icon Turkeyball (sometimes) Why yuo support Pakistan in Kashmir? Is my clay!
Likes Food, Nukes, Hinduism, Kama Sutra, Monies, religious tolerance, weapons, Yoga, Chai, Turmeric, Coffee, Spices, trading, Satellites, tourism, going to mars (then invasion) , Automobile industry, computers, samosas, T-Series, Pewdiepie helping out Indian children, T Series surpassing PewDiePie, PUBG Mobile. Tata, Mahindra, TVS, Bajaj, Hero, Tik Tok, Smartphones, Facebook, XXXTENTACION Dislikes Pakistan, Net Neutrality, pollution, corruption, poverty, Triple Talaq, Rohingyas, Religious Conversation, western media, traffic signals, bitch lasagna pewdiepie, being confused with Native Americans (Amerindians) Historical information Preceded by British Raj-icon British Rajball Is of importants Can into space? Yes. Scared NASA half to death with his rocket. Börk oye oye, dadhak dadhak, tech tech Food Curry, Biryani, Dosa, Tandoori chicken, Samoosa, Chicken Tikka Masala, Malai Kofta, Chole, Palak Paneer, Kaali Daal, Murg Makhani, Rogan Josh, Malai Kofta, Masala Chai. Multiple cuisines from the different Indian regions, bitch lasagna Status Launching satellites, lots of. Preparing to go to the moon, again. Notes Is expected to beat China in people soon in the future. “ *Autotuned but overused screaming voice* ”
— Every Bollywood Singer “ Hello this is Stewart from tech support ”
— An Indian Scammer “ Time to conquer all of India... Most of India. ”
— Chandragupta Maruya Indiaball, officially the Republic of Indiaball is a sovereign state and federal republic in South Asia.
Indiaball is the 7th largest country in the world with a total area is 1.269 million square miles. It is the largest country in South Asia. His clay is bordered by China-icon Chinaball, Nepal-icon NepalRawr, and Bhutan-icon Bhutanball to the North, Bangladesh-icon Bangladeshball and Myanmar-icon Myanmarball to the East, and Pakistan-icon Pakistanball to the West. The country is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories, including his capital New Delhi-icon Delhiball. There are over 1.324 billion people in Indiaball which makes it the 2nd most populous country besides China-icon Chinaball. It is the 12th most popular human migration destination after Ukraine-icon Ukraineball. Indiaball has many different cultures and ethnic groups that live together. It has a very rich cuisine. Most people are religious. 79.8% of the population practices Hinduism-icon Hinduball. Cows are sacred for Hindus and they believe in reincarnation. India is the second largest English speaking country. It has 125 million English speakers, mainly as a second language.
India is a member of BRICS-icon BRICS, G20, the Commonwealth, SCO-icon SCO and a founding member of SAARC-icon SAARC.
India has one of the fastest growing economies and the third largest GDP/PPP. However, it has major domestic problems such as much poverty, corruption, pollution and crime. The judicial system is slow with prosecuting offenders or they get bribed. There is also major discrimination due to the remant caste system. It puts people in different castes based on ethnicity, ancestry etc. This has caused semi-stratification of society.
Indiaball is the dominant power of South Asia and a major player in Asia. He has the 5th strongest military. Maybe one day he will become a superpower and remove kebab yay.
The most important national day is Indian Independence Day on August 15. It commemorates Indiaball's independence from his adoptive father UK-icon UKball on 15 August 1947.
Contents[hide] History Ancient Mauryan Empire Classical Period British Raj Indian Rebellion of 1857 Entry of M.K Gandhi War of 1947 61 Goa liberation Sino-Indian War of 1962 Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 Nathu La and Cho La incidents Bangladesh Liberation Anschluss of Siachen Kargil China–India border standoff Personality States and Territories States Union territories Flag Colors Main Colors Quotes Relationships दोस्त (Friends) उलझा हुआ (Complicated) दुश्मनों (Enemies) Gallery Artwork Comics HistoryEdit AncientEdit Indiaball was born as a 2-icon 2ball along with his brother who will be his Pakistan-icon flithy shit kebab neighbour in future and more distantly Iran-iconIranball . They both became Indus Valleyball where its ancestry comes from. The archeological sites have an inscription of the Rig Veda, dating to at least 3500 BC, which clearly shows that Hinduism-icon Hinduball was the religion. Much of the IVC remains a mystery because Indus script has not yet been deciphered (and probably never will be).
The decline of the IVC is subject to debate. Some Archeologists suggest that the river Saraswati dried/shifted resulting many of the cities being abandoned, while some suggested that the trade with Mesopotamia stopped due to some reason. According to some other archeologists, the ruins of Harrapa, Mohan-Jo-Daro, Rakhigarhi (probably the capital) appear to have been annihilated in a single day, because the skeleton discovered suggest that the people were carrying out the daily activities when something killed them all in a single instant, which sounds like 6balls were involved. All Indic civilizations had well-developed drainage systems and knew basic metal working. Their city planning was better compared to that of other ancient civilisations.
Mauryan EmpireEdit The Mauryaball was the first major empire on India's clay. The empire was known for its gigantic army of 10K war elephants and for its wealth. Under Ashoka's rule, the empire stretched from most of the Indian subcontinent to Indochina, Afghanistan and Tibet.
Classical PeriodEdit After the death of Mauryaball other empires took power and made their own contribution to shape Indiaclay.
The Gupta Empire - (4th–6th century) is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Hinduism, although a host of kingdoms ruled over Indiaclay in these centuries. Also, the Sangam literature flourished from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD in southern Indiaclay. During this period, the economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth, from 1 AD to 1000 AD.
The Shunga Empire - was the ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BC. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. It's capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar, modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa. Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. The empire is noted for it's numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought battles with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mitras. Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the Stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.
The Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language. The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronising Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. This helped the empire flourish and gain power.
The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, and Gurjara Pratihara Empire. Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notable being the Chalukya, Chola, Pallav, Chera, Pandyan, and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bengal in the 11th century. The early medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced.
Muslim rule started in parts of north India in the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks; though earlier Kebab conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the 8th century. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the major part of northern India in the early 14th century but declined in the late 14th century. During this period, continued Hindu resistance led to the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara, Gajapati, Ahom, as well as Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism. The early modern period began in the 16th century when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and the Mysore Kingdom to exercise control over large areas of the subcontinent.
British RajEdit During the post-medieval era, powers from Europe came as traders but started the divide and rule strategy to defeat the powerful princely states and slowly started to conquer these lands, creating colonial subjects. UK-icon UKball conquered the whole Indian-subcontinent including Pakistan, Afghanistan and Burma. This became the British Raj-icon British Rajball. So it was UK-icon UKball that united Indiaball otherwise it would still be fragmented with many different kingdoms and Princely States. British Raj-icon British Rajball was the most important colonial territory of the global spanning British Empire-icon British Empire.
Indiaball was till rather underdeveloped compared to the European Imperial countries. UK-icon UKball brought new technology and innovations from Europe to Indiaball. Since he was part of the British Empire-icon British Empire, that caused Indiaball to be involved in regional and global conflicts. Such as World War I and World War II.
After nearly 110 years, the British Empire-icon British Empire had proven to be an irresponsible and abusive parent. Indian farmers were forced to grow indigo on their land, which was really harmful for the soil, and were paid very little for the produce. The taxes charged by the British were of disproportionate amount and were used to support the economy of the British Empire-icon British Empire instead of public welfare.
Indian Rebellion of 1857Edit The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). It then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt also occurred farther north and east. The British were initially caught off-guard and were thus slow to react, but eventually responded with force. The lack of effective organisation among the rebels, coupled with the military superiority of the British, brought a rapid end to the rebellion. The British fought the main army of the rebels near Delhi, and after prolonged fighting and a siege, defeated them and retook the city on 20 September 1857. Subsequently, revolts in other centres were also crushed. The last significant battle was fought in Gwalior on 17 June 1858, during which Rani Lakshmibai was killed. Sporadic fighting and guerrilla warfare, led by Tatya Tope, continued until spring 1859, but most of the rebels were eventually subdued.
Under the Government of India Act 1858, the Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India, with its territory being transferred to the direct authority of the British government. At the apex of the new system was a Cabinet minister, the Secretary of State for India, who was to be formally advised by a statutory council; the Governor-General of India (Viceroy) was made responsible to him, while he in turn was responsible to the government. In a royal proclamation made to the people of India, Queen Victoria promised equal opportunity of public service under British law, and also pledged to respect the rights of the native princes, which she never fulfilled. The British stopped the policy of seizing land from the princes, decreed religious tolerance and began to admit Indians into the civil service (but mainly as subordinates). However, they also increased the number of British soldiers in relation to native Indian ones, and only allowed British soldiers to handle artillery. Bahadur Shah was exiled to Rangoon, Burma, where he died in 1862. In 1876, in a controversial move Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli acceded to the Queen's request and passed legislation to give Queen Victoria the additional title of Empress of India. Liberals in Britain objected that the title was foreign to British traditions.
Entry of M.K GandhiEdit After experiencing the balant racism and the horrors of colonialism, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi vowed to free India from the Brits.
Mahatma Gandhi launched a series of non-violent protests starting from the 'Swadeshi' movement and ending with the 'Quit India' movement.
After years of struggle and the biggest non-violent revolution in human history, finally in 1947, the British Raj-icon British Rajball became independent from its overlord, the UK-icon UKball. However, the religious differences between Muslims and Hindus led the country to be partitioned into Pakistan-icon Pakistanball and Indiaball.
War of 1947Edit On 22 October 1947, Pakistan-icon Pakistanball's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state. These local tribal militias and irregular Pakistan-icon Pakistan forces moved to take Srinagar, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir-icon Kashmirball made a plea to India for assistance, and help was offered, but it was subject to his signing an Instrument of Accession to Indiaball.
The war was initially fought by the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and by tribal militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier Province. Following the accession of the state to India on 26 October 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital. The British commanding officers initially refused the entry of Pakistan-icon Pakistan troops into the conflict, citing the accession of the state to India. The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948.
61 Goa liberationEdit The Goa-icon Goa liberation movement was a movement in which Indiaball took back Goa-icon Goaball from Portugal-icon Portugalball. The movement built on the small scale revolts and uprisings of the 19th century, and grew powerful during the period 1940-1961. The movement was conducted both inside and outside Goa-icon Goa, and was characterized by a range of tactics including nonviolent demonstrations, revolutionary methods and diplomatic efforts. However, Portuguese control of its Indian colonies ended only when Indiaball took back Goa-icon Goaball in 1961 and incorporated the clay into the Indian Union.
Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history. This is one of the time when USA-icon USAball was directly hostile towards Indiaball. USA-icon USAball was in support of Pakistan because of a pig called Nixon who made a proposal to UN-icon UNball to stop Indiaball's anschluss of Goa-icon Goa clay, but the decision was vetoed by Soviet-icon Sovietball and USA-icon USAball with UK-icon UKball was about to launch an attack at Indiaball with a carrier fleet but again, Soviet-icon Sovietball send his nuclear submarine to threaten the attackers. This ensured Indiaball's anschluss of Goa-icon Goaball.
Sino-Indian War of 1962Edit This Sino-Indian War was between China-icon Chinaball and Indiaball that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibet-icon Tibetball uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of a Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.
Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225-kilometre-long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang la in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre. The war ended when China declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal from one of the two disputed areas. Indian posts and patrols were removed from Aksai Chin, which came under direct Chinese control after the end of the conflict. India claims Aksai Chin is part of Jammu and Kashmirball.
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965Edit In 1965, the Indo-Pakistan War began following Pakistan-icon Pakistanball's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir clay to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countryballs ended after a UN-icon UNball mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet-icon Sovietball and the USA-icon Americaball, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir-icon Kashmirball's clay and along the border between India and Pakistan. Both countries returned each other occupied territories after the end of war.
Nathu La and Cho La incidentsEdit The Nathu La and Cho La incidents, (11–14 September 1967 and 1 October 1967 respectively) were a series of military clashes between Indiaball and China-icon Chinaball alongside the border of Himalayan Kingdom of Sikkim-icon Sikhism , then an Indian protectorate.
The clashes started on 11 September 1967, when People's Liberation Army launched an attack on Indian posts at Nathu La, which lasted till 15 September 1967. In October 1967, another dual took place at Cho La and ended on the same day.
According to an independent source, the end of the conflict resulted in the defeat of Chinese military in the hands of Indian forces. Many PLA fortifications at Nathu La were said to be destroyed. In the two incidents, significant number of casualties occurred on both sides, of which different figures were reported by both parties.
Bangladesh LiberationEdit The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between Indiaball and Pakistan-icon Pakistan that occurred during the events in the liberation war in East Pakistan, from 3 December 1971 to the Fall of Dhaka on 16 December 1971. Indiaball started the proxy war against Pakistan-icon Pakistanball by supporting Bengali separatists and even establishing their training centres and HQ on their clay. Bengali separatists engaged in a bloody conflict with Pakistan-icon Pakistanball. This move by Indiaball compelled Pakistan-icon Pakistanball to launch preemptive aerial strikes on 11 Indian air stations which led to the commencement of hostilities with Pakistan-icon Pakistan and Indian entry into the war of independence in East Pakistan on the side of Bengali nationalist forces. Even though Indiaball believes that USA-icon USAball was on Pakistan-icon Pakistanball side but the reality is that USA-icon USAball had imposed arms embargo on Pakistan-icon Pakistanball prior to the start of war. Hence Pakistan-icon Pakistanball was never able to recover its losses from previous war.
Anschluss of SiachenEdit Sometimes called the Siachen War, is a military conflict between Indiaball and Pakistan-icon Pakistanball over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir-iconKashmirball . A cease-fire went into effect in 2003. The contentious area is about 2,300 km2 to nearly 2,600 km2 of territory. The conflict began in 1984 with India's successful Operation Meghdoot during which it gained control over all of the Siachen Glacier (unoccupied and undemarcated area). India has established control over all of the 70 kilometers long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier—Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La. Pakistan-icon Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. According to TIME magazine, India gained more than 3,000 km2 of territory because of its military operations in Siachen.
KargilEdit The Kargil War was an armed conflict between India-icon Indiaball and Pakistan-icon Pakistanball that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay, which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector.
The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistan-icon Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between Indian and Pakistani clay. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff proved the involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured all of the lost positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. Facing international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC. Result: India-icon Indiaball took back clay.
Since then this country is fast growing. It has border conflicts due to the Kashmir-icon Jammu and Kashmirball, claimed by Indiaball, Pakistan-icon Pakistanball and China-icon Chinaball.
China–India border standoffEdit The China–India border standoff was from 6 June 2017 till 28 August 2017. China-icon Chinaball wanted to build infrastructure through Bhutan-icon Bhutanball which would gain it strategic and military influence into north-eastern Indian states. If China-icon Chinaball builds infrastructure to the thin geographic area then it could cut off India-icon Indiaball's access via West Bengal into its eastern states of Assam-icon Assam, Meghalaya-icon Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh-icon Arunachal Pradesh.
After a 2 month long standoff China-icon Chinaball finally backed down. However, India-icon Indiaball is still suspicious and improved its border security. India-icon Indiaball is also concerned about China-icon Chinaball's unfounded land grabs territorial claims to the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh-icon Arunachal Pradesh.
PersonalityEdit India card Indiaball
Indiaball is friendly with almost every countryball on the globe. He loves Indian cuisine such as curry and often eats with his bare hands. He likes computers and is a traditionalist for uphodling and practicing ancient traditions. There are many different cultures and ethnic groups which makes him multicultural. He speaks multiple languages, mostly Hindi and English. He is religious and sometimes fanatic. Mainly Hinduism-icon Hinduism (79.8%) with beliefs in reincarnation and that cows are sacred. 12.7% believe in Islam-icon Islam. He still follows the "caste system" to some degree, but it's not official by law. He enjoys watching Bollywood movies with low-budget special effects. He gets agitated when people confuse him with native americans (Amerindians), because Indiaball are the real and original Indians. He tries to be clean, but much of Indiaball is dirty with pollution including the rivers.
Indiaball despises his arch-rival Pakistan-icon Pakistanball and China-icon Chinaball because of Kashmir-icon Kashmirball dispute and the Sino-Indian War of 1962. He is a regional power and the dominant power of South Asia. He has one of the largest militaries with nukes and the 5th strongest (2018) in the world. He can be rather cunning and intelligent. He suffers from substantial corruption. He used to give donations to Bangladesh-icon Bangladeshball. Now he gives it to Nepal-icon Nepalrawr, Maldives-icon Maldivesball and also sometimes military support in his free time. He is fed up with separatists in some parts of his clay, mostly in the north-east. Indiaball has a love, hate relationship with his adoptive father UK-icon UKball.
Most of the time, he is happy that he is able into space with his own rockets. He has one of the fastest growing major economies in the world. He is best at cricket, hockey, and tech support. He is also best in football, though most don't know that because he can't into FIFA. He got qualified into 1950 FIFA World Cup, but had to withdraw soon. Some people believe it happened because nobody allowed him to play barefoot or due to some shitty controversies revolving around his team. Though he is still practising for football and is hopefull.
States and TerritoriesEdit Map of India Map of India
Indiaball has 29 states, 6 union territories and the national capital territory.
StatesEdit These are the 29 states:
Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Union territoriesEdit There are 6 union territories and the national capital territory New Delhi-icon Delhiball.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Puducherry Ladakhball (official in October the 31st, 2019). Jammu and Kashmir (official in October the 31st, 2019). Flag ColorsEdit Main ColorsEdit Color Name RGB CMYK HEX Deep Saffron 255, 153, 51 C0-M40-Y80-K0 #FF9933 White 255, 255, 255 N/A #FFFFFF India Green 18, 136, 7 C87-M0-Y95-K47 #128807 Dark Blue 0, 0, 136 C100-M100-Y0-K47 #000088 QuotesEdit "Namaste," - it is a greeting that comes from Sanskrit and literally means “bowing to you” or “I bow to you”. "Jai hind!" - a salutation that means "Long live India" or "Victory to India." "autotuned but overused screaming voice" - Every Indian Women Singers "T-Series rulezz, while PewDiePie droolzz!" - Indian YouTubers "Hello this is Stewart from tech support" - An Indian Scammer "Time to conquer all of India... Most of India." - Chandragupta Maurya "Baas!" - Stop! in Hindi. RelationshipsEdit दोस्त (Friends)Edit Friends with most countryballs, but the more important ones are:
Afghan-icon Afghanistanball - My Hitman Old friend who got raped by USA-icon USAball. I gib lots of aid, dams, helicopters and train his soldiers so that he can stab paki if needed as a sign of goodwill. A dam is named after our friendship. Colonized.ALSO STOP FORCING HINDUS TO PUT BADGES SAYING THAT THEY ARE HINDU, ARE YOU A NAZI? Armenia-icon Armeniaball - Hates Pakistan-icon Pakistan for not recognizing him. Anyone who hates Pakistan-icon Pakistan is my friend. Brazil-icon Brazilball - He one of my trade partners is a fellow member of BRICS-icon BRICSbrick. Bhutan-icon Bhutanball - Happy monk brother. Doesn't give a fuck about the world. But that commie China-icon China wants his clay! Don't mess with the Thunder Dragon Nation! Will gib him missiles. Colonized! Germany-icon Germanyball - My BMW, Mercedes, Audi, Porsche and most importantly Volkswagen supplier. Thanks for the Indian Legion.Swastikas are not evil you FREAK. Greece-icon Greeceball - Historical and very distant Friend. Alexander the Great can into conquerings my clay (well, more like the northern part). I also gibed him elephants during the Mauryan times and we like to learn together. Both of us are of very ancient. Indonesia-icon Indonesiaball - We are old friend since ancient times. He has been mentioned as 'Yawádweep in the Rāmayan. In 1950s, He gib me tones of rice when I suffered great starving. Then I gib him tones of clothes and support at any political problem. We are also founding members of the non aligned music. But remove Kebab! Bring back Hinduism-icon Hinduball! Iran-icon Iranball - Good friend but homie, stop supporting Pakistan. Kashmir is rightful Indian clay. And will it kill you if stop threatening Israel? Please return the money of peacock throne that you stole. Iraq-icon Iraqball - Good friend. I like some of his food he likes mine. Israel-icon Israelcube - Gibs weapon technology. We will remove evil kebab together Pakistan. Many Jewish-Indiaballs are Israeli citizens. His citizens favor my country. Japan-icon Japanball - The best and most kawaii of countryballs. Gibs bullet trains and tech. Security pact, so DEFEND ANIME! Malaysia-icon Malaysiaball You are kebab but you are of nice kebab, even though you are friends with that stupid Pakistan-icon Filthy Urdu kebab. You have my majority in your clay and also we both like Armenia-icon Armeniaball, also we both also using Armenia name on places. Philippines-icon Philippinesball - I remember my representative in 1994, she won when they hosted Miss Universe back in 1994. Modi met Duterte. He hates Pakistan-icon Pakistanball. Russia-icon Russiaball - Gibs tons of weapons. Fellow BRICS member. Can into removing kebab. Will help your economy and buy more weapons. DEFEND VODKA! South Korea-icon South Koreaball - My LG and Samsung seller. She is also the best Korea. We both hate Italy-icon Italyball so we're fine. Soviet-icon Sovietball - Come back plox. Best friend (though he was a bit violent) UAE-icon UAEball - I make half of his population. Colonized. USA-icon USAball - Though we have been trading partners, he's now trying to drag me into his trade war with Chinko and Iran. And I also don't like your CAATSA act. I will take away all your American jobs and colonize you! But relations are still very good, I guess. He helped me win independence so he's good. So out of all of my friends besides Russia, I think I like him the best.ALSO DEFEND TRUMP!!!! Nigeria-icon Nigeriaball - Cuz of scam. Mauritius-icon Mauritiusball - Hindu brother, the most prosperous state in Africa, also largest FDI. Most people are of Indian origin. Egypt-icon Egyptball - Non Aligned friend. Yugoslavia-icon Yugoslaviaball - Also non aligned friend. Come back please उलझा हुआ (Complicated)Edit Bangladesh-icon Bangladeshball - My other kebab brother. Helped him get independence, but now we have a love hate relationship after I tried to invade him. Also stop sending your refugees! GET OFF THE FENCE China-icon Chinaball - Fake Commie! How dare you support Pakistan-icon Pakistan?! 1962 worst year of life. 1974, best year! Remember Doklam! Still, he is a fellow BRICS member. Gib mobile phones Myanmar-icon Myanmarball - Stop sending yuor stupid Rohingya into my clay! Damn! Now I know how EU-icon euroguys feels. Uzbek-icon Uzbekistanball - My bar dancer. But he thinks I am raping him. Nepal-icon NepalRawr - M̶y̶ ̶h̶a̶t̶ ̶t̶h̶a̶t̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶p̶e̶t̶ ̶l̶i̶k̶e̶. Hindu like I am. But he can be savage at times. He's cool unless you piss him off, which is when he takes out that khurki and cuts you open. He also greatly hates me for imposing blockade and interfering in its politics. He also has a disputed territory (Kalapani territory) with me.My 30th state! Palestine-icon Palestineball - This one is like a Levant version of Kashmir. A bloody kebab, he is. Still I provide him aid for humanitarian reasons. But I should reconsider... Sentinelese-icon Sentineleseball - When you think North Korea is crazy.... I'll just leave your people on your tiny island. Sweden-icon Swedenball - I do like Sweden for it’s culture like Volvo and IKEA. But the mst thing I hate about Sweden, is PewDiePie. Pewds thinks he is #1, BUT T SERIES IS THE NEW NUMBER ONE. Frankly, PewDiePie is offering to help our country's Child Laborers, we thank you so much! But we still believe that T-Series will still win against you! Also you're gay and gays have no place in my community. ALSO U NO LIEK  Donald Trump!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!? HOW DARE YUO!!!!!!!!!!!! At least we have some Italy-icon Somalia-icon common enemies. Sri Lanka-icon Sri Lankaball: My 31st state! Stop getting so cozy with China-icon Chinko! Or suffer a military coup. Also stop killing my fishermen. M̶y̶ ̶o̶t̶h̶e̶r̶ ̶p̶e̶t̶. He has a lot of Hindus in his clay just forget about the Tamil Eelamball, okay... UK-icon UKball - Tyrannical adoptive father. How dare you kill my people!? Never forget Jalliawala Bagh! Gib Koh-i-noor back! But I've moved on since yuo support me for permanent UNSC seat. He has lots of Indiaballs in his clay. But our relationship is still complicated. HE IS ALSO THE REASON FOR WHY Pakistan (turban)-icon PAKISTAN WAS CREATED!!! Will Colonize you and your USA-icon war loving son from inside! Canada-icon Canadaball - yuor prime minister is op appropriating and disgraced my culture, STOP MAKING FUN OP MY CULTURE!!! Gypsy-icon Gypsyball - Most Balkan countryballs hate me because of yuo, even though it is not of my fault. DISGRACE!!! Turkey-icon Turkeyball - We both are interested in working on space technology together, but yuo of supporting Pakistan-icon filthy pig worshipper in the Kashmirball dispute! IS MY CLAY YUO UNDERSTAND दुश्मनों (Enemies)Edit Argentina-icon Argentinaball - NO MORE EATING COWS!!!!! REMOVE CHIMICHURRI RICE!!!!!!! Also, I am bigger than you! My UK-icon father hates him more than I do. Niger-icon Nigerball - STOP STEALING MUH FLAG YOU KAFFIR!! Pakistan-icon Pakistanball - A self-righteous terrorist kebab with nukes. He thinks he can remove me.WELL, WE MIGHT HAVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF NUKES, BUT MY NUKES MORE BETTER. GO DIE YOU FILTHY URDU PIG WORSHIPPER SCUM OF THE EARTH WHY DO YUO OF EXISTINGS LIFE WOULD BE BETTER. SIR CREEK AND KASHMIR ARE BOTH MY CLAY, YOU SHOULD GO DIE IN HELL ALONG WITH YOUR OTHER ISLAMIC FRIENDS REMOVE KEBAB. GIB INDUS otherwise my name won't make sense मुझे लगता है कि तुम एक पागल की तरह मुझे लगता है कि मैं तुम्हें पता होगा! Somalia-icon Somaliaball - Bloody Pirate! He is a K*ffir Taliban-icon Talibanball - He thinks he can remove Hinduism-icon Hinduball from my clay and impose Sharia law. Remove kebab. Defend Afghan-icon Afghanistanball. North Korea-icon North Koreaball - YUO ARE OF FAKE KOREA! South Korea-icon SOUTH KOREA IS TRUE KOREA! I HOPE SOUTH KOREA DESTROYS YOU SOON! DON'T EVEN THINK ABOUT NUKING ME YOU COMMUNIST PIG! Indiana-icon Indianaball - NAME STEALER!!! HE STOLE NAME!!! FUCK YUO INDIANA!!! Indiana-icon: I DID NOT STEAL YOUR NAME!!! MY NAME MEANS "LAND OF THE INDIANS" OR "INDIAN LAND." YOUR NAME IS DERIVED FROM "INDUS." Italy-icon Italyball - YOUR FAVOURITE SON PAPPU WON'T BECOME THE PM IN 2019!!! I SWEAR!! MODI STRONK!!! Sweden-icon.png Swedenball - YUOR PEWDIEPIE DISGRACED T-SERIES AND WHOLE COUNTRY!!! (Only in memes) Ukraine-icon Ukraineball - Crimea-icon Crimea belongs to Russia-icon Russia. Bahrain-icon Bahrainball - YOU KNOCKED ME OUT OF THE ASIAN CUP! 14 JANUARY 2019 WORST DAY OF MY LIFE! I HATE RASHID! I got you colonized
Uruguayball Is of eating cows.
GalleryEdit ArtworkEdit Indiaball!.pngILn7moS.pngIndia.ball.pngIndiaball.pngIndia card.pngMap of India.png11010619 979614238717838 5592672150556764188 n.jpgEast Asia.png Show MoreShow Fewer ComicsEdit 82fiv6cjeey11.png credit from MarsandCadmium 4zovtUL.png credit from Bittlegeuss SocialHierachyinCountryballs.pngUkiXVOI.png credit from Barskie VWYdxip.png Gingerbread Contest CwUplVP.png credit from woryok CountryBall04112017110001.pngCFJUL1Z.png Show MoreShow Fewer